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Adiponectin Relieves Human Adult Cardiac Myocytes Injury Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia.

BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with many cardiovascular disorders. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a key pathological hallmark of OSA. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects and the associated mechanisms of adiponectin (APN) on IH induced human adult cardiac myocytes (HACMs) injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS HACMs were exposed to normoxia or IH (1% to 21% O₂) using a novel cell culture bio-reactor with gas-permeable membranes. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell membrane integrity was assessed by the detection of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were determined using specific assay kits. P-AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), p-LKB1, and p-p65 protein levels were measured by western blotting. Pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 expressions were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS The results showed that APN had no cytotoxic to HACMs. Compared with the control group, HACMs cell viability significantly decreased, LDH release increased and cell apoptosis increased in the IH group. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MDA, and p-p65 were higher, while the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, p-AMPK, and p-LKB1 were lower in HACMs cells in the IH group than that in the control group. However, APN treatment significantly rescued these effects compared with the IH group in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, these results indicated that APN protected against IH induced HACMs injury possibly mediated by AMPK and NF-κB pathway.

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The composition of a bioprocessed shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushroom mycelia and rice bran formulation and its antimicrobial effects against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 in macrophage cells and in mice.

Human infection by pathogenic Salmonella bacteria can be acquired by consuming of undercooked meat products and eggs. Antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics used in medicine is also a major concern. To help overcome these harmful effects on microbial food safety and human health, we are developing novel antimicrobial food-compatible formulations, one of which is described in the present study.

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Is 8% O2 more normoxic than 21% O2 for long-term in vitro cultures of human primary term cytotrophoblasts?

Is 8% O2 a better percentage of atmospheric oxygen for long-term cultures of human primary term cytotrophoblasts than the conventional 21% O2 traditionally used in cell culture?

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Inhibitory effect of Lactococcus lactis on the bioactivity of periodontopathogens.

Lactococcus lactis is a probiotic bacterium that produces various bacteriocins. Periodontopathogens induce inflammation and halitosis through the actions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and trypsin-like enzymes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of L. lactis on the bioactivity of periodontopathogens. To investigate the antimicrobial peptide of L. lactis, the spent culture medium (SCM) of L. lactis was treated with or without proteinase K after collection by centrifugation, and the antibacterial activity of SCM against periodontopathogens was assessed. To evaluate the neutralizing effect of L. lactis on halitosis, SCM of periodontopathogens was mixed with an L. lactis suspension, and the levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were measured by gas chromatography. LPS from the periodontopathogens was extracted by an LPS extraction kit with little modification, and THP-1 cells as a monocytic cell line were treated with the extracted LPS in the presence or absence of UV-killed L. lactis. The production of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed by ELISA. The SCM of L. lactis exhibited antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathogens, whereas the proteinase K-treated SCM showed little antimicrobial activity. In addition, the L. lactis suspension had a neutralizing effect on the VSCs produced by periodontopathogens, and UV-killed L. lactis inhibited the production of IL-6 and TNF-α induced by the LPS. These results suggest that L. lactis may be a useful probiotic to prevent and treat periodontitis and halitosis.

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Prospective Longitudinal Analysis of Immune Responses in Pediatric Subjects After Pharyngeal Acquisition of Group A Streptococci.

Despite the significant burden of disease associated with infection by group A streptococcus (GAS), little is known about the human immune response to GAS antigens after natural infection.

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Membrane fatty acid heterogeneity of leukocyte classes is altered during in vitro cultivation but can be restored with ad-hoc lipid supplementation.

The cell membrane is a primary and fundamental player in most cellular processes, and fatty acids form a major structural component of cell membranes. The aim of this study was to compare the membrane fatty acid profiles of different human blood leukocytes and selected cell lines, to identify the effects of in vitro culture on fatty acid profiles, and to test medium supplements for their effect on fatty acid profiles.

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The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Produced by Anaerobic Bacteria, in the Cystic Fibrosis Airway.

Anaerobic bacteria are present in large numbers in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis (PWCF). In the gut, anaerobes produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that modulate immune and inflammatory processes.

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Production of immune response mediators by HT-29 intestinal cell-lines in the presence of Bifidobacterium-treated infant microbiota.

The colonisation and establishment of the intestinal microbiota starts immediately at birth and is essential for the development of the intestine and the immune system. This microbial community gradually increases in number and diversity until the age of two or three years when it becomes a stable ecosystem resembling that of adults. This period constitutes a unique window of opportunity to modulate it through probiotic action, with a potential impact in later health. In the present work we have investigated how putative bifidobacterial probiotics modify the metabolic profiles and immune-modulatory properties of faecal microbiotas. An in vitro pH-controlled single-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) inoculated with infant faeces was employed to characterise the effects of two Bifidobacterium species on the intestinal microbiotas in three children, together with the effects of these modified microbiotas on cytokine production by HT-29 cells. Intestinal bacterial communities, production of short-chain fatty acids and lactate were determined by quantitative PCR and gas chromatography, respectively. Cytokines production by HT-29 cells was measured by ELISA. The combination of CCS with infant faeces and human intestinal cells provided a suitable model to evaluate the specific modulation of the intestinal microbiota and immune system by probiotics. In the CCS, infant faecal microbiotas were influenced by the addition of bifidobacteria, resulting in changes in their ability to induce the production of immune mediators by HT-29 cells. The different metabolic and immunological responses induced by the bifidobacterial species tested indicate the need to assess potential probiotics in model systems including complex intestinal microbiotas. Potential probiotic bifidobacteria can modulate the infant microbiota and its ability to induce the production of mediators of the immune response by intestinal cells.

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[Effects of vacuum sealing drainage combined with irrigation of oxygen loaded fluid on chronic wounds in diabetic patients].

To evaluate the therapeutic effects of VSD combined with irrigation of oxygen loaded fluid on chronic wounds in diabetic patients.

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