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Glycyrrhizic acid prevents enteritis through reduction of NF‑κB p65 and p38MAPK expression in rat.

Glycyrrhizic acid has a variety of biological properties, including a protective function in the liver, and anti‑inflammatory, anti‑ulcer, anti‑anaphylaxis, anti‑oxidant, immunoregulatory, antiviral and anticancer activities. The efficacy of glycyrrhizic acid can be increased when combined with other medicines. In the present study, the potential protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid against enteritis in rats, and its role in regulating anti‑inflammation, anti‑oxidation, angiogenic and apoptotic mechanisms were investigated using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent and bicinchoninic acid assays, and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses. Adult male Sprague‑Dawley rats were injected with 20 mg/kg methotrexate (MTX) to establish enteritis. Additionally, rats with MTX‑induced enteritis were peritoneally injected with 200 mg glycyrrhizic acid for 9 weeks. The current study demonstrated that glycyrrhizic acid could alleviate MTX‑induced increases of tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 levels, and raise IL‑10 levels, in rats with enteritis. Treatment with glycyrrhizic acid significantly reduced D‑lactate and intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 gene expression (P<0.01), but did not inhibit diamine oxidase activity in MTX‑induced enteritis. Pretreatment with glycyrrhizic acid significantly suppressed the promotion of p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), nuclear factor‑κB p65 (NF‑κB p65) protein expression, interferon‑γ protein concentration, and caspase‑3 and cycloxygenase‑2 activity in MTX‑induced enteritis (P<0.01). The findings of the current study suggest that glycyrrhizic acid may prevent enteritis by reducing NF‑κB p65 and p38MAPK expression levels, which may inform future therapeutic strategies for the treatment of enteritis.

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Reduced glucose degradation products in bicarbonate/lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions produced in two-chambered bags.

The aims of the current study were: (1) to determine the effects of peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions at different glucose concentrations on the growth of cultured cells; (2) to determine whether a bicarbonate/lactate-based solution, as a result of the configuration of its components during heat sterilization in a two-chambered bag, was lower in glucose degradation products than a corresponding lactate-based PD solution; and (3) to determine whether lower glucose degradation corresponded to a decreased inhibition of cell growth.

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