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#28438220   2017/04/25 Save this To Up

Anaplasma spp. in dogs and owners in north-western Morocco.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen of increased interest worldwide which has been detected in northern Africa. Anaplasma platys is also present in this region and could possibly have a zoonotic potential. However, only one recent article reports on the human esposure to A. phagocytophilum in Morocco and no data are available on canine exposure to both bacteria. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess both canine and human exposure to Anaplasma spp. in Morocco. A total of 425 dogs (95 urban, 160 rural and 175 working dogs) and 11 dog owners were sampled from four cities of Morocco. Canine blood samples were screened for Anaplasma spp. antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for A. phagocytophilum and A. platys DNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the msp2 gene. Human sera were tested for specific A. phagocytophilum immunoglobulin G (IgG) using a commercial immunofluorescence assay (IFA) kit.

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#27680167   2016/09/29 Save this To Up

FREQUENCY OF ANTI- Toxocara spp. ANTIBODIES IN INDIVIDUALS ATTENDED BY THE CENTRO DE SALUD FAMILIAR AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION WITH Toxocara canis EGGS IN DOG FECES, IN THE COASTAL NIEBLA TOWN, CHILE.

The frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in individuals attended by the Centro de Salud Familiar in the coastal Niebla town, Chile, was related to the host and to environmental factors. IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies were detected with a commercial ELISA kit (SCIMEDX Corporation, USA). Samples with undetermined absorbance values were subjected to an additional ELISA standardized by the Instituto de Salud Pública, Chilean Health Ministry, a commercial ELISA (NOVATEC, Germany), and a commercial Western blot kit (LDBio Diagnostics, France). Hematological exams were performed using an automated blood counter and blood smears. Dog feces were collected from the ground along the main road in Niebla, including rural and urban locations. Ninety (25.4%) of the 355 examined individuals were positive by the ELISA test. The frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies and the infection risk were significantly higher (p < 0.05) among those individuals ≥ 40 years old with respect to the 20-39 years old group, in individuals from rural locations, those who did not have a safe drinking water supply in the house or who presented blood eosinophilia. The proportion of positive samples of dog feces and the mean number of Toxocara canis eggs/g of feces in urban and rural areas were similar (p > 0.05).

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#27022503   2016/03/29 Save this To Up

Latent and Asymptomatic Toxocara Infection among Young Population in Northwest Iran: The Necessity of Informing People as a Potential Health Risk.

Objectives. This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in youngsters aging from 2 to 20 years in northwest Iran. Materials and Methods. 397 samples were taken randomly almost equally from four locations in Urmia, west Azerbaijan, during August 2014 to September 2015. Anti-Toxocara IgG antibody assays were done on sera by using ELISA kit (IBL, Germany). In order to prevent cross-reaction, the samples of the patients who are infected with other parasites in stool exam, especially Ascarididae family, were also excluded. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results. 12 (3%) of the serum samples were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG. According to the Chi-square analysis, risk factors such as mother's educational level, keeping dogs or cats as pets, and history of coughing were related to Toxocara infection (P < 0.05). There was no relationship between toxocariasis and gender, history of onychophagy, pica, fever, abdominal pain, and anorexia; however, we found a significant relationship between Toxocara infection and chronic coughing (P = 0.045). Conclusion. Toxocariasis in northwest Iran can be considered as a public health problem. This study may also help to increase the awareness about this infection.

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#26811731   2016/01/26 Save this To Up

Seroepidemiology of Toxocariasis in Children (5-15 yr Old) Referred to the Pediatric Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Isfahan, Iran.

Human toxocariasis, a helminthozoonosis, is due to the migration of Toxocara species larvae into human organisms. Humans, especially children become infected by ingesting of embryonated eggs from soil, dirty hands, and raw vegetables. Seroprevalence of this infection is high in developed countries, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiology of Toxocariasis in children referred to the pediatric clinic of Imam Hossein hospital, Isfahan, Iran.

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#26547714   2015/11/09 Save this To Up

Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis), a parasite which subsists in dog's intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU) to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis. In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB) WB test. We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13) of patients (n=73) with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109). Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa) were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity 12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day) increases seropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found 17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals. Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canis seropositivity in patients with CU.

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#26425118   2015/10/01 Save this To Up

American trypanosomiasis and associated risk factors in owned dogs from the major city of Yucatan, Mexico.

The American trypanosomiasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). The disease is widely distributed throughout the American continent, affecting a wide range of hosts, including dogs. It is present in the canine population in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. However, no significant studies in owned dogs have been performed in the metropolitan area of Merida. A transversal study was conducted in 370 owned dogs from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.

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#26108008   2015/06/25 Save this To Up

Epidemiological aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection in riverside communities in the Southern Brazilian Amazon.

Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. Information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection is scarce in some regions of Brazil, including riverside communities along the Amazon River basin.

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#25891124   2016/01/13 Save this To Up

Evaluation of Immunity and Seropositivity of IgG Antibodies to Canine Parvoviruses in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a very contagious and virulent viral disease affecting domestic dogs all over the world causing high morbidity and mortality in dogs, especially puppies. This study aimed at determining the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against CPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs and to evaluate the immune status of dogs presented in Abeokuta. Forty-eight dogs were enrolled in this study. These dogs were presented at random for treatment, routine checkup, and vaccination at the State Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Teaching Hospital all in Abeokuta. All the dogs were fully maintained under domestic setting. Selection for study was done based on thorough examination of the dogs and their medical records. The clients were informed of the nature of the investigation. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-CPV-IgG. In principle, protective immunity correlates with high antibody titers and this was determined using a commercially available immunocomb® test kit for anti-CPV IgG antibody. Of 48 dogs sampled, 38 (79.2%) had high level of anti-CPV antibody titer and 10 (20.8%) had low level of anti-CPV antibody titer. Twenty six (54.2%) were males while 22 (45.8%) were females. Forty-five (93.75%) dogs were exotic breeds while 3 (6.25%) dogs were mongrels. Thirty (62.5%) of the dogs were less than one year old and the age range of all dogs sampled was between 7 weeks and 7 years. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sex and the level of immunity but significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between ages of dogs, breeds, post-vaccination period, and the level of immunity. In conclusion, this study has further confirmed the presence of IgG antibodies against canine parvovirus among dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Of all variables evaluated, ages of dogs, breeds and post-vaccination period were the main correlates of the level of immunity to CPV. This study also showed agreement with previous studies in the diagnostic value of using the immunoblot ELISA assay for the rapid detection of anti-CPV IgG antibody.

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#25739483   2015/03/05 Save this To Up

[Seroprevalence of risk factors associated with rickettsiosis (Rickettsia rickettsii) in humans in Baja California, Mexico].

Rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii is capable of infecting vertebrates, including humans. The symptoms are high fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and cough. Mortality can be up to 30% in untreated patients.

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#24187662   2013/11/04 Save this To Up

Comparison of a clinic-based ELISA test kit with the immunofluorescence antibody test for assaying Leishmania infantum antibodies in dogs.

This study compares a rapid Immunospecific Kalazar Canine Rapid Spot IF with the gold standard test (indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT)) for detection of Leishmania infantum specific IgG serum antibodies in naturally exposed dogs. Serum samples were obtained from 89 healthy dogs and dogs affected by canine leishmaniosis (CanL). IgG-IFAT titers ≥80 were considered positive. Anti-L. infantum IgG antibodies were found in 54 samples with titers ranging from 1 : 80 to 1 : 5120. The performance of the rapid Immunospecific Kalazar was evaluated using a ROC curve. The area under the ROC curve of 0.957 was significantly different from 0.5 (P < 0.0001), and therefore it can be concluded that the rapid Immunospecific Kalazar has the ability to distinguish canine sera with and without L. infantum IgG. The best performance of the test was at a cutoff >0 (sensitivity 92.6%, specificity 97%). The test can be used for disease screening if the cutoff is >0 (highest sensitivity, 92.6%) and is recommended as confirmatory test for the presence of L. infantum IgG antibodies if the cutoff is set >2 (highest specificity, 100%).

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