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Dishevelled proteins are significantly upregulated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Dishevelled (DVL) proteins are components of the Wnt signalling pathways, and increased expression is associated with various malignancies. Information on DVLs in chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of DVLs in CLL cells and association with Wnt pathways downstream of ROR1. DVL1, 2 and 3 were exclusively expressed in CLL cells as compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The expression of DVL1 and DVL3 proteins was significantly more pronounced in progressive than in non-progressive disease (p < 0.01), whereas the level of DVL2 was significantly higher in non-progressive as compared to progressive disease (p < 0.001). Treatment of CLL cells with anti-ROR1 specific monoclonal antibodies induced dephosphorylation of ROR1 as well as of tyrosine and serine residues of both DVL2 and DVL3. However, gene silencing of DVLs in the CLL cell line (EHEB) did not induce detectable apoptosis. Non-progressive CLL patients had a different protein activity pattern with regard to Wnt signalling pathway proteins as GSK-3β, β-catenin and AKT as compared to progressive disease. The DVL2 protein may play a role in the activation of signalling pathways in CLL during early stages of the disease, while DVL1 and 3 may have a role in later phases of the leukaemia.

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CAPE suppresses migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells via activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling.

Prostate cancer (PCa) was the fifth most common cancer overall in the world. More than 80% of patients died from PCa developed bone metastases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a main bioactive component of honeybee hive propolis. Transwell and wound healing assays demonstrated that CAPE treatment suppressed the migration and invasion of PC-3 and DU-145 PCa cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blotting indicated that CAPE treatment reduced the abundance and activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2. Analysis using Micro-Western Array (MWA), a high-throughput antibody-based proteomics platform with 264 antibodies detecting signaling proteins involved in important pathways indicated that CAPE treatment induced receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) in non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway but suppressed abundance of β-catenin, NF-κB activity, PI3K-Akt signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression or knockdown of ROR2 suppressed or enhanced cell migration of PC-3 cells, respectively. TCF-LEF promoter binding assay revealed that CAPE treatment reduced canonical Wnt signaling. Intraperitoneal injection of CAPE reduced the metastasis of PC-3 xenografts in tail vein injection nude mice model. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that CAPE treatment increased abundance of ROR2 and Wnt5a but decreased protein expression of Ki67, Frizzle 4, NF-κB p65, MMP-9, Snail, β-catenin, and phosphorylation of IκBα. Clinical evidences suggested that genes affected by CAPE treatment (CTNNB1, RELA, FZD5, DVL3, MAPK9, SNAl1, ROR2, SMAD4, NFKBIA, DUSP6, and PLCB3) correlate with the aggressiveness of PCa. Our study suggested that CAPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for patients with advanced PCa.

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Dsh homolog DVL3 mediates resistance to IGFIR inhibition by regulating IGF-RAS signaling.

Drugs that inhibit insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGFI) receptor IGFIR were encouraging in early trials, but predictive biomarkers were lacking and the drugs provided insufficient benefit in unselected patients. In this study, we used genetic screening and downstream validation to identify the WNT pathway element DVL3 as a mediator of resistance to IGFIR inhibition. Sensitivity to IGFIR inhibition was enhanced specifically in vitro and in vivo by genetic or pharmacologic blockade of DVL3. In breast and prostate cancer cells, sensitization tracked with enhanced MEK-ERK activation and relied upon MEK activity and DVL3 expression. Mechanistic investigations showed that DVL3 is present in an adaptor complex that links IGFIR to RAS, which includes Shc, growth factor receptor-bound-2 (Grb2), son-of-sevenless (SOS), and the tumor suppressor DAB2. Dual DVL and DAB2 blockade synergized in activating ERKs and sensitizing cells to IGFIR inhibition, suggesting a nonredundant role for DVL3 in the Shc-Grb2-SOS complex. Clinically, tumors that responded to IGFIR inhibition contained relatively lower levels of DVL3 protein than resistant tumors, and DVL3 levels in tumors correlated inversely with progression-free survival in patients treated with IGFIR antibodies. Because IGFIR does not contain activating mutations analogous to EGFR variants associated with response to EGFR inhibitors, we suggest that IGF signaling achieves an equivalent integration at the postreceptor level through adaptor protein complexes, influencing cellular dependence on the IGF axis and identifying a patient population with potential to benefit from IGFIR inhibition.

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The functions of maternal Dishevelled 2 and 3 in the early Xenopus embryo.

Of the three Dishevelled (Dvl) genes, only Dvl2 and Dvl3 are maternally encoded in the frog, Xenopus laevis. We show here by loss of function analysis that single depletion of either Dvl2 or Dvl3 from the oocyte causes the same embryonic phenotype. We find that the effects of loss of function of Dvl2 and 3 together are additive, and that the proteins physically interact, suggesting that both are required in the same complex. We show that maternal Dvl2 and 3 are required for convergence extension movements downstream of the dorsally localized signaling pathway activated by Xnr3, but not downstream of the pathway activated by activin. Also, depletion of maternal Dvl2 and 3 mRNAs causes the up-regulation of a subset of zygotic ectodermal genes, including Foxi1e, with surprisingly no significant effect on the canonical Wnt direct target genes Siamois and Xnr3. We suggest that the likely reason for continued expression of the Wnt target genes in Dvl2/3-depleted embryos is that maternal Dvl mRNA depletion is insufficient to deplete stored punctae of Dvl protein in the oocyte cortex, which may transduce dorsal signaling after fertilization.

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Dishevelled family proteins are expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and function differentially on tumor progression.

Dishevelled (Dvl) family proteins are cytoplasmic mediators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway and have recently been linked to cancers. However, the roles of individual Dvls and their expression in human cancers are poorly defined. This work aimed to characterize the expression of Dvls and their correlation to clinicopathological factors and beta-catenin expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

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Differential mediation of the Wnt canonical pathway by mammalian Dishevelleds-1, -2, and -3.

In the Drosophila, a single copy of the phosphoprotein Dishevelled (Dsh) is found. In the genomes of higher organism (including mammals), three genes encoding isoforms of Dishevelled (Dvl1, Dvl2, and Dvl3) are present. In the fly, Dsh functions in the Wnt-sensitive stabilization of intracellular beta-catenin and activation of the Lef/Tcf-sensitive transcriptional response known as the Wnt "canonical" pathway. In the current work we explore the expression of Dishevelleds in mammalian cells and provide an estimate of the relative cellular abundance of each Dvl. In mouse F9 cells, all three Dvls are expressed. Dvl2 constitutes more than 95% of the total pool, the sum of Dvl1 and Dvl3 constituting the remainder. Similarly, Dvl2 constitutes more than 80% of the Dvl1-3 pool in mouse P19 and human HEK 293 cells. siRNA-induced knock-down of individual Dvls was performed using Wnt3a-sensitive canonical pathway in F9 cells as the read-out. Activation of the canonical signaling pathway by Wnt3a was dependent upon the presence of Dvl1, Dvl2, and Dvl3, but to a variable extent. Wnt3a-sensitive canonical transcription was suppressible, by knock-down of Dvl1, Dvl2, or Dvl3. Conversely, the overexpression of any one of the three Dvls individually was found to be capable of promoting Lef/Tcf-sensitive transcriptional activation, in the absence of Wnt3a, i.e., overexpression of Dvl1, Dvl2, or Dvl3 is Wnt3a-mimetic. Graded suppression of individual Dvl isoforms by siRNA was employed to test if the three Dvls could be distinguished from one another with regard to mediation of the canonical pathway. Canonical signaling was most sensitive to changes in the abundance of either Dvl3 or Dvl1. Changes in expression of Dvl2, the most abundant of the three isoforms, resulted in the least effect on canonical signaling. Dvl-based complexes were isolated by pull-downs from whole-cell extracts with isoform-specific antibodies and found to include all three Dvl isoforms. Rescue experiments were conducted in which depletion of either Dvl3 or Dvl1 suppresses Wnt3a activation of the canonical pathway and the ability of a Dvl isoform to rescue the response evaluated. Rescue of Wnt3a-stimulated transcriptional activation in these siRNA-treated cells occurred only by the expression of the very same Dvl isoform depleted by the siRNA. Thus, Dvls appear to function cooperatively as well as uniquely with respect to mediation of Wnt3a-stimulated canonical signaling. The least abundant (Dvl1, 3) plays the most obvious role, whereas the most abundant (Dvl2) plays the least obvious role, suggesting that individual Dvl isoforms in mammals may operate as a network with some features in common and others rather unique.

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Expression of Wnt pathway components frizzled and disheveled in colon cancer arising in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Mutations in apc which lead to activation of the Wnt signaling pathway are a hallmark of sporadic colon cancers but occur infrequently in colon cancers arising in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is evidence, however, that other components of the Wnt pathway may be altered in IBD-related colon cancer. In this study, we examined the expression the Wnt pathway components frizzled (Fz), the cell surface receptor, and disheveled (DVL), a family of cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules, in IBD and IBD-related colon cancer. Paraffin sections of normal and malignant colon tissues were obtained from patients with a history of ulcerative colitis and from controls with sporadic colon cancer. Tissue sections were stained with antibodies directed against Fz1/2 receptors and DVL1, DVL2 and DVL3 and antigen expression visualized by immunohistochemistry. Fz1/2 receptors were minimally expressed in normal IBD mucosa, were not expressed in IBD colon cancer, but exhibited strong expression in dysplastic tissues adjacent to the cancers. DVL1 was not expressed in IBD normal mucosa or normal mucosa from non-IBD patients, but was expressed in all cancers. DVL2 and DVL3 were expressed in all normal mucosa samples tested, and in sporadic colon cancer, but were not expressed in colon cancers arising in IBD patients. The characteristics of Fz and DVL expression in IBD tissues reported herein provides evidence of the importance of Wnt signaling in IBD and IBD-related colon cancer and, specifically, the significance of non-APC components of this pathway. Fz may serve as a marker for dyspasia in IBD patients and DVL1 is a potential therapeutic target for IBD-related colon cancer.

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WNT/PCP signaling pathway and human cancer (review).

WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway controls tissue polarity and cell movement through the activation of RHOA, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nemo-like kinase (NLK) signaling cascades. PCP is induced in Drosophila by the asymmetrical localization of Frizzled-Dishevelled-Diego-Starry night (Flamingo) complex and Van Gogh (Strabismus)-Prickle complex. Here, WNT/PCP signaling pathway implicated in human carcinogenesis is reviewed. Human WNT5A, WNT5B, and WNT11 are representative non-canonical WNTs transducing PCP signals through FZD3 or FZD6 receptors, and ROR1, ROR2 or PTK7 co-receptors. Human VANGL1, VANGL2 (Van Gogh homologs), CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3 (Starry night homologs), DVL1, DVL2, DVL3 (Dishevelled homologs), PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2 (Prickle homologs), and ANKRD6 (Diego homolog) are core PCP signaling molecules. MAGI3 assembles FZD, VANGL, PTEN, and adhesion molecules. Dishevelled-dependent WNT/PCP signals are transduced to the RHOA signaling cascade through Formin homology proteins DAAM1 and DAAM2, and to the JNK signaling cascade through MAPKKKs and MAPKK4/7. Dishevelled-independent WNT/ PCP signals are transduced to the NLK signaling cascade through MAP3K7 (TAK1). ANKRD6, NKD1 and NKD2 induce class switch from the WNT/GSK3beta signaling pathway to the WNT/PCP signaling pathway. WNT5A is up-regulated in various types of human cancer, such as gastric cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. FZD3/FZD6 receptor and ROR2 co-receptor transduce WNT5A signal in gastric cancer. Aberrant activation of WNT/PCP signaling pathway in human cancer leads to more malignant phenotypes, such as abnormal tissue polarity, invasion, and metastasis. cDNA-PCR, microarray or ELISA reflecting aberrant activation of WNT/PCP signaling pathway could be developed as novel cancer prognostics. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number polymorphism (CNP) of WNT/PCP signaling molecules mentioned above are suitable for use in screening of cancer predisposition, especially for gastric cancer. Antibody, RNAi, or small molecule compounds to regulate the function of WNT/PCP signaling molecules mentioned above are good candidates for development as novel cancer therapeutics.

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Efficacy of Wnt-1 monoclonal antibody in sarcoma cells.

Sarcomas are one of the most refractory diseases among malignant tumors. More effective therapies based on an increased understanding of the molecular biology of sarcomas are needed as current forms of therapy remain inadequate. Recently, it has been reported that Wnt-1/beta-catenin signaling inhibits apoptosis in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody in sarcoma cells.

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