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In vivo immunosuppression by targeting a novel protease receptor.

Membrane receptors for blood proteases govern the clotting and fibrinolytic cascades, regulate signal transduction and control the growth of mesenchymal cells. Despite their importance in the development of vascular injury, it is unclear whether these mechanisms participate in the generation of an immune response. Here we report that targeting a factor Xa receptor, designated effector cell protease receptor-1 (EPR-1), with antisense oligonucleotide or with a monoclonal antibody (mAB 2E1) inhibited CD3/T-cell receptor-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Immunosuppression was mediated by abolishing cytokine production and down-modulating membrane expression of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor. In vivo administration of mAb 2E1 to severe-combined-immunodeficient mice injected with human peripheral blood leukocytes suppressed production of human immunoglobulin, abolished graft-versus-host disease, and protected these xenochimaeric mice from Epstein-Barr-virus-induced human lymphoproliferative disease. These observations indicate a new role for protease receptors in the regulation of the immune response, and identify a potential target for therapeutic immunosuppression in humans.

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Interferon-a Receptor Typ Mouse Anti-Human Interleu interleukin 17 receptor C Protease Inhibitor 15 ant interferon-alpha receptor Directed In Vivo Angiogen Human integrin aVb3, affi IGF-1R Signaling Phospho- Insulin Receptor Phospho- T-Cell Receptor Signaling Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep

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CD13-specific autoimmunity in cytomegalovirus-infected immunocompromised patients.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been suggested to be associated with various autoimmune manifestations, such as hemolytic anemia, granulocytopenia, and the formation of autoantibodies. Earlier we found that CMV is associated with a human protein, CD13 (aminopeptidase N), emanating from CMV-infected cells and serving an important function during CMV infection of susceptible cells. We hypothesized that CD13 might become immunogenic if presented to the immune system as a part of the CMV virion. The presence of CD13-specific antibodies was tested using a microcytotoxicity assay against CD13-positive human monocytes, or by flow cytometric assays against mouse cells transfected with human CD13; specificity was assessed by specific blocking with monoclonal antibodies. CD13 reactivity was also demonstrated in immunoprecipitation experiments. CD13-specific antibodies were identified in 15 of 33 bone marrow transplant patients, but exclusively in patients who had experienced either CMV disease (9/10) or CMV viremia (6/9), and appeared at the time of CMV detection. None of the remaining 14 patients without signs of CMV infection were positive for CD13 antibodies (P<0.0001). No antibody of this specificity was found in any of the control individuals (0/24), including patients with various autoimmune diseases, CMV-seropositive or -seronegative healthy individuals, and patients with acute EBV or HSV-1 infections. Thus, the CMV-associated autoantigen CD13 is immunogenic during CMV infection in bone marrow transplant patients. A specific response against autoantigens associated with infectious virus particles is suggested as a new and general mechanism to explain virus-induced autoimmune manifestations in man.

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anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl CAL-101 Mechanisms: PI3K- BYL-719 Mechanisms: PI3K- GSK-2636771 Mechanisms: P IPI-145 (INK-1197) Mechan Apoptosis antibody array Cell cycle antibody array Cytokine antibody array i Signal transduction antib AKT Phospho-Specific Arra

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