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#29045565   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Cigarette sidestream smoke delays nucleotide excision repair - inhibited accumulation of repair proteins at DNA lesions.

Cigarette sidestream smoke (CSS) contains many carcinogens that induce DNA damage. DNA damage plays an important role in the initiation of cancer and several diseases, and repair is the major defense mechanism; however, the relationship between CSS and the repair of DNA damage remains unclear. We herein investigated whether CSS influences nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vivo and in vitro. HR-1 hairless mouse skin treated with CSS was exposed to UVB, as a result of which pyrimidine dimers (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs)) were formed and repaired via the NER pathway. The immunohistochemical staining of CPDs revealed that their repair was delayed by the CSS treatment. This delay in NER and the underlying mechanisms were examined in the human skin cell lines, HaCaT and HSC-1. Dot-blot assays, ELISA, and local UV irradiation assays demonstrated that CSS delayed the repair of CPDs and 6-4PPs. The recruitment of the repair molecules, TFIIH, XPA, and XPG to pyrimidine dimers was markedly inhibited by CSS. Semicarbazide, which reacts with aldehydes, recovered the CSS-induced inhibition of NER, and formaldehyde exerted similar inhibitory effects to those of CSS. These results suggest that aldehydes in CSS interfere with the recruitment of NER molecules to damaged sites, leading to a delay in the repair of pyrimidine dimers.

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#29044636   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

An inverse association between serum resistin levels and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake was strongest in the SNP-420 G/G genotype in the Japanese cohort: The Toon Genome Study.

Resistin is secreted from monocytes/macrophages and is associated with insulin resistance, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. In the Japanese cohort, serum resistin is tightly associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at -420 (rs1862513) in the promoter region of the human resistin gene. However, interactions between SNP-420 and environmental factors remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and nutrient intake, and the effect of SNP-420 on this association.

2554 related Products with: An inverse association between serum resistin levels and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake was strongest in the SNP-420 G/G genotype in the Japanese cohort: The Toon Genome Study.

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#29044421   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Heterogeneous hCG and hMG commercial preparations result in different intracellular signalling but induce a similar long-term progesterone response in vitro.

Are four urinary hCG/menotropin (hMG) and one recombinant preparation characterized by different molecular features and do they mediate specific intracellular signaling and steroidogenesis?

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#29043661   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Development of Adenosine Deaminase-Specific IgY Antibodies: Diagnostic and Inhibitory Application.

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is currently used as a diagnostic marker for tuberculous pleuritis. Although ADA has been suggested as a potential marker for several types of cancer, the importance of each of ADA isoforms as well as their levels and enzymatic activities in tumors need to be further investigated. Herein we developed avian immunoglobulin Y highly specific to human ADA via hens immunization with calf adenosine deaminase. The obtained antibodies were used for the development of a sensitive double-egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) sandwich ELISA assay with an ADA detection limit of 0.5 ng/ml and a linearity range of up to 10 ng/ml. Specific, affinity-purified IgYs were able to recognize human recombinant ADA and ADA present in human cancer cell lines. In addition, antigen-specific IgY antibodies were able to inhibit catalytic activity of calf ADA with an IC50 value of 47.48 nM. We showed that generated IgY antibodies may be useful for ADA detection, thus acting as a diagnostic agent in immunoenzymatic assays.

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#29042994   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Immunological mechanism of low-dose priming radiation resistance in walker-256 tumor model mice.

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low-dose priming radiation induces antitumor immunity that can be augmented by the modulation of natural killer (NK) cell and cytokine activity using a mouse tumor model. Walker-256 cells were injected into the right flank of male BALB/c mice. At 7 days after inoculation, mice were divided into three groups, including group 1,2,3. In group 1 the mice were without radiation, in group 2 the mice were received 2 Gy radiation only, and in group 3 the mice were radiated with a priming dose of 75 mGy followed by 2 Gy radiation after 24 h. On day 21 following the radiation, the tumors were removed and the tumor index (tumor weight as a percentage of body weight) was calculated. At 1, 7, 14 and 21 days following the 2 Gy radiation, mouse splenocytes were isolated to analyze the NK activity and measure the production of the cytokines interleukin-1β, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α by ELISA. Apoptosis was also measured by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that priming radiation significantly delayed the tumor growth and prolonged the median survival time to 38 days compared with the 31-day survival in the 2 Gy radiation group. The percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the mice that received 75 mGy + 2 Gy radiation compared with that in the mice that received 2 Gy alone; by contrast, mice that were not irradiated exhibited a relatively low level of apoptosis. The primed mice had a higher level of NK activity as compared with the mice exposed to 2 Gy radiation only or mice that were not irradiated. Furthermore, cytokine expression remained at a higher level in mice receiving priming dose of radiation compared that in the mice receiving only 2 Gy radiation. In conclusion, the results indicated that low-dose priming X-ray radiation may enhance the NK activity and the levels of cytokines, and that the immune response serves an important role in anticancer therapy, including radiotherapy.

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#29042607   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Abnormal M1/M2 macrophage phenotype profiles in the small airway wall and lumen in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

We explore potential dysregulation of macrophage phenotypes in COPD pathogenesis through integrated study of human small airway tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and an experimental murine model of COPD. We evaluated human airway tissue and BAL from healthy controls, normal lung function smokers (NLFS), and COPD subjects. Both small airways and BAL cells were immunohistochemically stained with anti-CD68 for total macrophages and with anti-CD163 for M2, and anti-iNOS for M1 macrophages. Multiplex ELISA measured BAL cytokines. Comparable cigarette smoke-induced experimental COPD mouse model was assessed for relevant mRNA profiles. We found an increase in pro-inflammatory M1s in the small airways of NLFS and COPD compared to controls with a reciprocal decrease in M2 macrophages, which remained unchanged among pathological groups. However, luminal macrophages showed a dominant M2 phenotype in both NLFS and COPD subjects. BAL cytokine skewed towards an M2 profile with increase in CCL22, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10 in both NLFS and COPDs. The mouse-model of COPD showed similar increase in mRNA for M2 markers. Our finding suggests abnormal macrophage switching in both mucosal and luminal areas of COPD patients, that strongly associated with cytokine balance. There may be potential for beneficial therapeutic cytokine manipulation of macrophage phenotypes in COPD.

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#29042428   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Sex Differential in 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Levels in the Lumen of Human Intracranial Aneurysms.

Aspirin is a promising medical therapy for the prevention of intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. Recently, we found that men have a better response to aspirin than women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a sex differential exists in the level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) in the lumen of human IAs.

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#29040578   2017/10/17 Save this To Up

Systemic inflammation induced by microRNAs: Endometriosis Derived Alterations in Circulating microRNA 125b-5p and Let7b-5p regulate Macrophage Cytokine Production.

Endometriosis is characterized by aberrant inflammation. We previously reported increased levels of miRNA 125b-5p and decreased levels of miRNA let 7b-5p in serum of patients with endometriosis.

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#29040544   2017/10/17 Save this To Up

Mutation-specific downregulation of CFTR2 variants by gating potentiators.

Approximately 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are heterozygous with a rare mutation on at least one allele. Several mutants exhibit functional defects, correctable by gating potentiators. Long-term exposure (≥24h) to the only available potentiator drug, VX-770, leads to the biochemical and functional downregulation of F508del-CFTR both in immortalized and primary human airway cells, and possibly other CF mutants, attenuating its beneficial effect. Based on these considerations, we wanted to determine the effect of chronic VX-770 exposure on the functional and biochemical expression of rare CF processing/gating mutants in human airway epithelia.Expression of CFTR2 mutants was monitored in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (CFBE41o-) and in patient-derived conditionally reprogrammed bronchial and nasal epithelia by short-circuit current measurements, cell surface ELISA and immunoblotting in the absence or presence of CFTR modulators. The VX-770 half-maximal effective (EC50) concentration for G551D-CFTR activation was ∼0.63 μM in human nasal epithelia, implying that comparable concentration is required in the lung to attain clinical benefit. Five of the twelve rare CFTR2 mutants were susceptible to ∼20-70% downregulation by chronic VX-770 exposure with an IC50 of ∼1-20 nM and to destabilization by other investigational potentiators, thereby diminishing the primary functional gain of CFTR modulators.Thus, chronic exposure to VX-770 and preclinical potentiators can destabilize CFTR2 mutants in human airway epithelial models in a mutation and compound specific manner. This highlights the importance of selecting potentiator drugs with minimal destabilizing effects on CF mutants, advocating a precision medicine approach.

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#29039981   2017/10/17 Save this To Up

Calcitriol, the Active Metabolite of Vitamin D3, Inhibits Dry Eye Related Corneal Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro.

To examine the influence of topical administration of calcitriol on dry eye (DE) related corneal inflammation.

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