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Detection and Incidence of Listeria Species in Blended Raw Egg.

In an egg pasteurizing plant, in-line filters removing solids from raw blended whole egg were sampled on a daily basis for 5 months for the presence of Listeria species. Two selective enrichment procedures (the Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA] protocols) were assessed along with three selective plating media, Oxford Listeria selective agar, modified Vogel Johnson agar, and lithium chloride phenylethanol moxalactam agar. Overall, 173 samples were studied, with 125 (72%) being Listeria positive and the USDA method with Oxford agar proving most efficient. The only species isolated were Listeria innocua (62.2%) and Listeria monocytogenes (37.8%). To estimate the numbers of listeriae present in the blended raw egg, samples were taken from a sampling point immediately prior to the pasteurizer and subjected to selective enrichment in USDA broth. A most probable number counting experiment was employed to study egg samples in quintiplicate, and Listeria spp. were detected using Tecra Listeria ELISA kits, which had been previously evaluated for their sensitivity and ease of use. Samples from 9 successive days' production showed a mean level of Listeria spp. of 1 organism per ml. Hence, Listeria spp. were frequently present at low levels in raw egg before pasteurization. A total of 500 daily samples of pasteurized product were also studied, and all proved to be negative for Listeria , confirming the safety of the pasteurization process with regard to listeriae.

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Seroepidemiology of measles in Beijing, China: a cross-sectional study.

The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of measles and identify the high risk of measles infection in the general population of Beijing. A total of 2144 subjects aged 0-76 years old were selected using a multi-stage stratified sampling method. Socio-demographic characteristics, vaccination history, and disease history of measles were collected by questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for measles-specific IgG by using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seropositivity rate of measles was 79.80% (95% CI 78.1-81.5%) and standardized seropositivity rate was 84.61% (95% CI 84.12-87.10%), with the median concentration of 773.40IU/L. The area of Beijing with the highest seroprevalence was the central area [81.79% (95% CI 80.16-83.42%) and 855.84IU/L]. There were no significant differences in seropositivity rates of different genders (P = 0.074), history of measles infection (P = 0.421) and registered population (P = 0.598). The 1-4 age group had the highest seropositivity rate [94.06%(95% CI 93.06-95.06%)] and children below the age of 1 (0-12 months) had the lowest seropositivity rate [34.42% (95% CI 32.41-36.43%)]. The 30-34 and 35-39 age groups were relatively lower with 72.90% (95% CI 71.02-74.78%) and 74.65% (95% CI 72.81-76.49%) respectively. Seropositivity rates changed along with the incidence rates of measles periodically by years. As shown in the present study, the seroprevalence of measles antibody in Beijing have not yet met the threshold required to achieve measles elimination and therefore the risk of an epidemic of measles will be existing. Appropriate targeted immunization strategies and measures should be considered and carried out.

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Regulatory Roles of Pectin Oligosaccharides on Immunoglobulin Production in Healthy Mice Mediated by Gut Microbiota.

The prebiotic regulation of the gut microbiota is a promising strategy to induce protective humoral and mucosal immune responses. The potential immune-improving effects of pectin oligosaccharides (POS) in healthy mice and the potential mechanism mediated by specific intestinal bacteria were investigated.

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Mass Spectrometry Analysis of the Exhaled Breath Condensate and Proposal of Dermcidin and S100A9 as Possible Markers for Lung Cancer Prognosis.

New sampling techniques to analyse lung diseases, such as exhaled breath condensate (EBC), are a breakthrough in research field since they are less invasive and less traumatic for the patients compared to lung biopsies. Nevertheless, there is an increasing need to optimize not only the sampling protocols but the storage and processing of specimens to get accurate results.

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Dihydroartemisinin Ameliorated Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma in Mice via Regulation of MiR-183C.

BACKGROUND The purpose of the present study was to investigate the function and mechanism of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in treating ovalbumin-induced asthma in BALB/c mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty female BALB/c mice were randomly separated into 3 groups: the control group, the asthma model group stimulated by ovalbumin (OVA group), and the DHA treatment group (DHA group). The therapeutic effects and potential pharmacological mechanisms of DHA were specifically clarified by examining its effects on asthma-related phenomena, such as body weight, lung function, cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and hemotoxin and eosin staining. In addition, the expression of inflammatory factors was checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and fractions of Th17 cells were detected by FACS analysis. Moreover, the downstream molecular pathway of IL-6/Stat3 (interleukin-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and expression of miR-183C was investigated by western blot and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Luciferase assay was used to reveal the function of miR-183C on the transcriptional regulation of Foxo1 (forkhead box O). RESULTS DHA administration significantly relieved the severity of the asthma through its effect on body weight, survival rate, and airway pressure. DHA was able to ameliorate lung damage in terms of pathological morphology and it reduced the percentage of helper T 17 (Th17) cells and the secretion of cytokines. As a result, the activity of the IL-6/Stat3 pathway was inhibited by DHA. In addition, the adoption of DHA decreased the expression of miR-183C but increased the expression of the transcription factor Foxo1. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the therapeutic effects of DHA on asthma are partially realized via the regulation of miR-183C and IL-6/Stat3 pathway.

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Role of anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA+IgG antibodies in detection of potential celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes.

: Celiac disease (CD) can exist in various forms in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and can remain undetected, leading to severe complications. This study was aimed to evaluate five commercially available anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) ELISA kits with distinct formats for the detection of CD and potential CD in T1D patients. Clinical and demographic profiles of the patients with different disease subsets were also studied.

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N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid attenuates remedial effects of memantine on memory deficits following intracerebroventricular streptozotocin administration in rats.

N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA) is a blocker of transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) which is a non-selective, Ca2+-permeable and oxidative stress sensor cation channel. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induction successfully generates spatial memory deficits in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of ACA on a rat model of STZ-induced learning and memory deficits. A total of 60 Wistar rats randomly divided into six groups; (1) control, (2) sham-operated, (3) ICV-STZ administered, (4) ICV-STZ + memantine (5 mg/kg i.p.), (5) ICV-STZ + ACA (25 mg/kg i.p.) and (6) a combination therapy group, ICV-STZ + ACA (25 mg/kg) + memantine (5 mg/kg). Effects of the drugs on spatial memory deficits were appraised in Morris water maze (MWM) apparatus. Anxiety-like behavior of the rats were also assessed by using both the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field maze (OFM) apparatuses. Western blot analysis of hippocampal tissues revealed TRPM2-L channel protein expression levels. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Memantine treatment ameliorated the spatial memory deficits induced, as evidenced by the MWM tests. However, ACA treatment did not provide any improvement, instead positive effects of memantine were attenuated by ACA treatment. Western blot analysis in hippocampal tissues showed that TRPM2-L protein expression was markedly suppressed in ICV-STZ administered group. The ACA treatment reversed that suppression. Surprisingly, the memantine treatment resulted in overexpression of TRPM2-L, to a certain extent. Examination of the rats in EPM and OFM apparatuses, as a display of anxiety-like behavior, did not reveal any marked difference among groups. Serum levels of TNF-α and MDA also did not vary significantly among groups, as well. Conclusively, our findings showed for the first time that TRPM2-L protein expression was significantly suppressed in the ICV-STZ induced memory deficit model. Even though ACA reversed this suppression, no improvement in spatial memory was observed following ACA treatment.

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Physicochemical properties and laxative effects of polysaccharides from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. In loperamide-induced rats.

Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. Is a traditional Chinese medicine used in treating constipation.

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Increased Oxidized High-Density Lipoprotein/High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Ratio as a Potential Indicator of Disturbed Metabolic Health in Overweight and Obese Individuals.

We evaluated the qualitative characteristics of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese subjects.

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B cell activation factor (BAFF) induces inflammation in the human fallopian tube leading to tubal pregnancy.

Tubal pregnancy is recognized as one of the most common ectopic pregnancy types. Salpingitis may result in tubal pregnancy by causing fallopian tube occlusion and hydrosalpinx. B cell activation factor (BAFF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that helps regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Our previous study firstly showed that BAFF immunostaining appeared on the cellular membrane and in the cytoplasm of tubal epithelial cells, and both BAFF protein and mRNA in human inflamed fallopian tubes had higher expression levels than those in normal fallopian tubes. This study aimed to elucidate the association between the expression of BAFF gene and the inflammation in the human fallopian tube leading to tubal pregnancy.

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