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References: Stanic, AK et al (2006). Immune dysregulation accelerates atherosclerosis and modulates plaque composition in systemic lupus erythematosus. PNAS 103(18):7018-23.
Pubmed ID: 16636270
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=16636270
Abstract: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated atherosclerosis. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and investigations have been hampered by the absence of animal models that reflect the human condition of generalized atherosclerosis and lupus. We addressed this problem by transferring lupus susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice, an established model of atherosclerosis, creating radiation chimeras with NZM2410-derived, lupus-susceptible, B6.Sle1.2.3 congenic or C57BL/6 control donors (LDLr.Sle and LDLr.B6, respectively). LDLr.Sle mice developed a lupus-like disease characterized by production of double-stranded DNA autoantibodies and renal disease. When fed a Western-type diet, LDLr.Sle chimeras had increased mortality and atherosclerotic lesions. The plaques of LDLr.Sle mice were highly inflammatory and contained more CD3+ T cells than controls. LDLr.Sle mice also had increased activation of CD4+ T and B cells and significantly higher antibody to oxidized LDL and cardiolipin. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the lupus-susceptible immune system enhances atherogenesis and modulates plaque composition.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1459011
References: Grimm, PR et al (2009). Hypertension of Kcnmb1-/- is linked to deficient K secretion and aldosteronism. PNAS 106(28):11800-5
Pubmed ID: 19556540
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19556540
Abstract: Mice lacking the beta1-subunit (gene, Kcnmb1; protein, BK-beta1) of the large Ca-activated K channel (BK) are hypertensive. This phenotype is thought to result from diminished BK currents in vascular smooth muscle where BK-beta1 is an ancillary subunit. However, the beta1-subunit is also expressed in the renal connecting tubule (CNT), a segment of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, where it associates with BK and facilitates K secretion. Because of the correlation between certain forms of hypertension and renal defects, particularly in the distal nephron, it was determined whether the hypertension of Kcnmb1(-/-) has a renal origin. We found that Kcnmb1(-/-) are hypertensive, volume expanded, and have reduced urinary K and Na clearances. These conditions are exacerbated when the animals are fed a high K diet (5% K; HK). Supplementing HK-fed Kcnmb1(-/-) with eplerenone (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist) corrected the fluid imbalance and more than 70% of the hypertension. Finally, plasma [aldo] was elevated in Kcnmb1(-/-) under basal conditions (control diet, 0.6% K) and increased significantly more than wild type when fed the HK diet. We conclude that the majority of the hypertension of Kcnmb1(-/-) is due to aldosteronism, resulting from renal potassium retention and hyperkalemia.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2701967
References: Hauser, PV et al (2010). Stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid contribute to acute kidney injury recovery. Am J Pathol. 177(4):2011-21
Pubmed ID: 20724594
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=20724594
Abstract: Stem cells isolated from human amniotic fluid are gaining attention with regard to their therapeutic potential. In this work, we investigated whether these cells contribute to tubular regeneration after experimental acute kidney injury. Cells expressing stem cell markers with multidifferentiative potential were isolated from human amniotic fluid. The regenerative potential of human amniotic fluid stem cells was compared with that of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. We found that the intravenous injection of 3.5 × 10(5) human amniotic fluid stem cells into nonimmune-competent mice with glycerol-induced acute kidney injury was followed by rapid normalization of renal function compared with injection of mesenchymal stem cells. Both stem cell types showed enhanced tubular cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Mesenchymal stem cells were more efficient in inducing proliferation than amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, which, in contrast, were more antiapoptotic. Both cell types were found to accumulate within the peritubular capillaries and the interstitium, but amniotic fluid stem cells were more persistent than mesenchymal stem cells. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the two cell types produced different cytokines and growth factors, suggesting that a combination of different mediators is involved in their biological actions. These results suggest that the amniotic fluid-derived stem cells may improve renal regeneration in acute kidney injury, but they are not more effective than mesenchymal stem cells.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2947295[Available on 2011/10/1]
References: He, Z et al (2008). Interleukin-18 binding protein transgenic mice are protected against ischemic acute kidney injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 295(5):F1414-21
Pubmed ID: 18753296
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18753296
Abstract: IL-18 function is neutralized in IL-18 binding protein transgenic (IL-18BP Tg) mice. First, we determined whether IL-18BP Tg mice are protected against ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). Ischemic AKI was induced by bilateral renal pedicle clamping. IL-18BP Tg mice were functionally and histologically protected against ischemic AKI as determined by blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and acute tubular necrosis score. We have demonstrated that the injurious effect of IL-18 in the kidney is independent of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Thus the effect of IL-18 inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration was determined. The number of macrophages was significantly reduced in IL-18BP Tg compared with wild-type kidneys. To determine the cytokines and chemokines that are dependent on IL-18, we performed flow cytometry based assays. Multiple chemokines/cytokines, IL-3, IL-6, IL-15, IL-18, leukemia inhibitory factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were significantly increased in AKI vs. sham kidneys. Only CXCL1 (also known as KC or IL-8) was significantly increased in AKI vs. sham kidneys and significantly reduced in IL-18BP Tg AKI vs. wild-type AKI kidneys. To determine whether macrophages are the source of CXCL1 in the kidney, we depleted macrophages with liposomal encapsulated clodronate. CXCL1 was significantly decreased in macrophage-depleted vs. control AKI mice. In summary, in ischemic AKI in mice, 1) IL-18BP Tg mice are functionally and histologically protected, 2) macrophage infiltration in the kidney and CXCL1 are significantly reduced in IL-18BP Tg mice, and 3) macrophage depletion significantly reduces CXCL1 in the kidney. In conclusion, protection against ischemic AKI in IL-18BP Tg mice is associated with less macrophage infiltration and less production of CXCL1 in the kidney.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2584896
References: Xu, J et al (2010). FVB mouse genotype confers susceptibility to OVE26 diabetic albuminuria. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 299(3):F487-94
Pubmed ID: 20610531
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=20610531
Abstract: OVE26 (OVE) diabetic mice on the inbred strain FVB are a valuable model of diabetic nephropathy that excretes the highest amount of urine albumin of all diabetic mouse models. Crossing of OVE mice to C57BL6 or DBA2 mice reduced albuminuria 17-fold in F1 diabetic offspring without reducing diabetes. When comparing renal histology of OVE mice on the FVB background to F1 C57BL6 crosses, we found that the F1 kidneys had significantly smaller glomeruli, much less albumin accumulation in tubules, reduced mesangial matrix expansion, and less interstitial fibrosis. A genome scan of 108 OVE-positive N2 offspring for albuminuria revealed one significant peak on chromosome 11 and nearly significant peaks on chromosomes 9, 13, and 19. Homozygosity for the FVB genotype for peaks on chromosomes 11, 13, or 19 increased albuminuria. Homozygosity for the chromosome 9 peak reduced albuminuria. Combined homozyogosity for the peaks on chromosomes 11, 13, and 19 increased albuminuria over 12-fold and accounted for >70% of the difference between OVE mice on the FVB vs. the F1 background. These loci contain sequences important to susceptibility to diabetic albuminuria.[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2944296
Sample Type: urine
References: Lorch, G et al (2007). Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling reduces hypercalcaemia induced by human lung squamous-cell carcinoma in athymic mice. Br J Cancer 97(2):183-93
Pubmed ID: 17533397
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=17533397
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) expression and humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy (HHM), using two different human squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) xenograft models. A randomised controlled study in which nude mice with RWGT2 and HARA xenografts received either placebo or gefitinib 200 mg kg(-1) for 3 days after developing HHM. Effectiveness of therapy was evaluated by measuring plasma calcium and PTHrP, urine cyclic AMP/creatinine ratios, and tumour volumes. The study end point was at 78 h. The lung SCC lines, RWGT2 and HARA, expressed high levels of PTHrP mRNA as well as abundant EGFR protein, but very little erbB2 or erbB3. Both lines expressed high transcript levels for the EGFR ligand, amphiregulin (AREG), as well as, substantially lower levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) mRNA. Parathyroid hormone-related protein gene expression in both lines was reduced 40-80% after treatment with 1 muM of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 and precipitating antibodies to AREG. Gefitinib treatment of hypercalcaemic mice with RWGT2 and HARA xenografts resulted in a significant reduction of plasma total calcium concentrations by 78 h. Autocrine AREG stimulated the EGFR and increased PTHrP gene expression in the RWGT2 and HARA lung SCC lines. Inhibition of the EGFR pathway in two human SCC models of HHM by an anilinoquinazoline demonstrated that the EGFR tyrosine kinase is a potential target for antihypercalcaemic therapy.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2360295
References: Abrass, CK et al (2010). Laminin alpha4-null mutant mice develop chronic kidney disease with persistent overexpression of platelet-derived growth factor. Am J Pathol. 176(2):839-49
Pubmed ID: 2003505
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=2003505
References: Socha, MJ et al (2007). Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine deficiency ameliorates renal inflammation and fibrosis in angiotensin hypertension. Am J Pathol. 171(4):1104-12
Pubmed ID: 17717147
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=17717147
Abstract: The matricellular protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) modulates cell adhesion, proliferation, matrix deposition, and tissue remodeling. SPARC has been shown to regulate the expression of collagen type I and transforming growth factor-beta1 in mesangial cells and to be highly expressed during tubulointerstitial fibrosis in rat angiotensin (ANG) II infusion models. We hypothesized that SPARC is a downstream effector of ANG II and that loss of host SPARC function provides a protective effect on renal damage and fibrosis associated with ANG II hypertension. Our results revealed that cultured primary mesangial cells displayed a concentration-dependent increase in SPARC expression in response to ANG II. After a 14-day chronic infusion of ANG II, hypertensive SPARC-null mice exhibited significantly attenuated levels of urinary and renal indicators of oxidative stress and inflammation and decreased renal perivascular and tubulointerstitial fibrosis relative to wild-type hypertensive controls. Moreover, the observed renal protective changes in SPARC-null mice were found to be independent of blood pressure. These results identify SPARC as an effector of ANG II signaling and suggest an important role for SPARC in mediating ANG II-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1988862
References: Tang, TC et al (2010). Impact of metronomic UFT/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and antiangiogenic drug assessed in a new preclinical model of locally advanced orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma. Neoplasia 12(3):264-74
Pubmed ID: 20234820
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=20234820
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an intrinsically chemotherapy refractory malignancy. Development of effective therapeutic regimens would be facilitated by improved preclinical HCC models. Currently, most models consist of subcutaneous human tumor transplants in immunodeficient mice; however, these do not reproduce the extensive liver disease associated with HCC or metastasize. To address this deficiency, we developed an orthotopic model. Human HCC cells were transfected with the gene encoding secretable beta-subunit human choriogonadotropin (beta-hCG), which was used as a surrogate marker of tumor burden. The HCC cells were implanted into the left liver lobe of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, after which the efficacy of different therapies was evaluated on established, but liver-confined human Hep3B cell line HCC. Treatments included sorafenib or metronomic chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide (CTX), UFT, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug, or doxorubicin either alone or in various combinations, with or without an antiangiogenic agent, DC101, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibody. Sorafenib inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner but caused severe weight loss in SCID mice, thus necessitating use of DC101 in subsequent experiments. Although less toxicity was observed using either single or doublet metronomic chemotherapy without any added antiangiogenic agent, none, provided survival benefit. In contrast, significantly improved overall survival was observed using various combinations of metronomic chemotherapy regimens such as UFT + CTX with DC101. In conclusion, using this model of liver-confined but advanced HCC suggests that the efficacy of a targeted antiangiogenic drug or metronomic chemotherapy can be mutually enhanced by concurrent combination treatment.[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2838774
Sample Type: plasma
References: Andonegui, G et al (2009). Characterization of S. pneumoniae pneumonia-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: an experimental mouse model of gram-positive sepsis. Shock 31(4):423-8
Pubmed ID: 18827750
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18827750
Abstract: Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive bacteria, is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. It is a common cause of septic shock with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) resulting in significant mortality. Gram-positive mouse models of sepsis with MODS are required to examine mechanisms of immune responses in severe sepsis. To assess whether lung infection due to S. pneumoniae in a nonventilated mouse model can induce multiple organ dysfunction. S. pneumoniae, SPN 15814 strain, harvested at log phase, was injected intratracheally in C57BL/6 mice at OD 600 between 0.35 and 0.63. A dose of bacteria at OD 600 = 0.63 conferred approximately 30% mortality in 36 h. Lung pneumonia was assessed by histology, lung myeloperoxidase activity, and lung bacterial load; intestinal epithelial barrier integrity was assessed by measuring blood-to-lumen clearance of Cr-EDTA; renal function was assessed by measuring plasma creatinine and urea; and myocardiac function was assessed using an isolated perfused mouse heart model. S. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia resulted in neutrophil infiltration into the lungs and increased lung bacterial load. Although relatively few bacteria gained access to the blood stream, the pneumonia was accompanied by increased intestinal epithelial barrier permeability, increased plasma creatinine, and decreased cardiac output and stroke volume. These data clearly show that intratracheal S. pneumoniae induced not only pneumonia but also MODS, despite the fact that few organisms gain access to the blood stream. This model can be used as a good gram-positive model of sepsis and MODS for further studies.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sample Type: urine
References: Zhang, SX et al (2006). Therapeutic potential of angiostatin in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 17(2):475-86
Pubmed ID: 16394111
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=16394111
Abstract: Angiostatin is a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen and a potent angiogenic inhibitor. Previous studies have shown that angiostatin inhibits retinal neovascularization and reduces retinal vascular permeability in diabetic retinopathy. Here, it is reported for the first time that angiostatin is also implicated in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Angiostatin levels are dramatically decreased in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Consistently, diabetic kidneys also showed decreased expression and proteolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2, an enzyme that releases angiostatin from plasminogen. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of angiostatin significantly alleviated albuminuria and attenuated the glomerular hypertrophy in diabetic rats. Moreover, angiostatin treatment downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and TGF-beta1, two major pathogenic factors of DN, in diabetic kidneys. In cultured human mesangial cells, angiostatin blocked the overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor and TGF-beta1 that were induced by high glucose while increasing the levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor, an endogenous inhibitor of DN. Moreover, angiostatin effectively inhibited the high-glucose-and TGF-beta1-induced overproduction of proinflammatory factors and extracellular matrix proteins via blockade of the Smad signaling pathway. These findings suggest that the decrease of angiostatin levels in diabetic kidney may contribute to the pathologic changes such as inflammation and fibrosis in DN. Therefore, angiostatin has therapeutic potential in DN as a result of its anti-inflammatory and antifibrosis activities. Comment in J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Feb;17(2):325-7.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sample Type: serum
References: Gilliam-Davis, S et al (2007). Long-term AT1 receptor blockade improves metabolic function and provides renoprotection in Fischer-344 rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 293(3):H1327-33
Pubmed ID: 17616746
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=17616746
Abstract: Fischer-344 (F344) rats exhibit proteinuria and insulin resistance in the absence of hypertension as they age. We determined the effects of long-term (1 yr) treatment with the angiotensin (ANG) II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blocker L-158,809 on plasma and urinary ANG peptide levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and indexes of glucose metabolism in 15-mo-old male F344 rats. Young rats at 3 mo of age (n = 8) were compared with two separate groups of older rats: one control group (n = 7) and one group treated with L-158,809 (n = 6) orally (20 mg/l) for 1 yr. SBP was not different between control and treated rats but was higher in young rats. Serum leptin, insulin, and glucose levels were comparable between treated and young rats, whereas controls had higher glucose and leptin with a similar trend for insulin. Plasma ANG I and ANG II were higher in treated than untreated young or older rats, as evidence of effective AT(1) receptor blockade. Urinary ANG II and ANG-(1-7) were higher in controls compared with young animals, and treated rats failed to show age-related increases. Protein excretion was markedly lower in treated and young rats compared with control rats (young: 8 +/- 2 mg/day vs. control: 129 +/- 51 mg/day vs. treated: 9 +/- 3 mg/day, P < 0.05). Long-term AT(1) receptor blockade improves metabolic parameters and provides renoprotection. Differential regulation of systemic and intrarenal (urinary) ANG systems occurs during blockade, and suppression of the intrarenal system may contribute to reduced proteinuria. Thus, insulin resistance, renal injury, and activation of the intrarenal ANG system during early aging in normotensive animals can be averted by renin-ANG system blockade.[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
References: Zafar, I et al (2009). Long-term rapamycin therapy in the Han:SPRD rat model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Nephrol Dial Transplant. 24(8):2349-53
Pubmed ID: 19321761
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19321761
BACKGROUND: Short-term studies have demonstrated that rapamycin or everolimus treatment decreases cyst formation and improves renal function in animal models of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients would likely require life-long treatment with rapamycin.
METHODS: Male Han:SPRD rats with PKD (Cy/+) were treated with rapamycin (0.2 mg/kg/day IP) or vehicle from 1 to 12 months of age. Mean trough levels of rapamycin (ng/mL) were 6.6 +/- 0.1 at 8 weeks of age. Twelve-month-old littermates (+/+) were used as normal controls.
RESULTS: Twelve-month-old male Cy/+ rats treated with the vehicle had a more than doubling of kidney volume, severe chronic renal failure, severe hypertension and increased heart weight compared to normal littermate controls (+/+). After rapamycin treatment, 12-month-old Cy/+ rats had markedly improved kidney volume, renal function, blood pressure and heart weight not statistically different from controls. Rapamycin reduced the cyst volume density (CVD) by 72%. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation in the heart, as evidenced by a marked increase in the phospho-S6 protein that was inhibited by rapamycin, was demonstrated in 12-month-old Cy/+ rats.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, long-term rapamycin treatment in Cy/+ rats results in a normalization of kidney volume, renal function, blood pressure and heart weight. The novel finding that rapamycin decreases hypertension, heart enlargement and mTOR signalling in the heart in PKD rats is reported. The only side effect of rapamycin treatment was an 11% decrease in body weight.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2727300
References: Sahan-Firat, S et al (2010). 2,3',4,5'-Tetramethoxystilbene prevents deoxycorticosterone-salt-induced hypertension: contribution of cytochrome P-450 1B1. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299(6):H1891-901.
Pubmed ID: 20852048
Pubmed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=20852048
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to various models of hypertension, including deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension. Recently, we have shown that ROS, generated by cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1) from arachidonic acid, mediate vascular smooth muscle cell growth caused by angiotensin II. This study was conducted to determine the contribution of CYP1B1 to hypertension and associated pathophysiological changes produced by DOCA (30 mg/kg) given subcutaneously per week with 1% NaCl + 0.1% KCl in drinking water to uninephrectomized rats for 6 wk. DOCA-salt treatment increased systolic blood pressure (SBP). Injections of the selective inhibitor of CYP1B1, 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS; 300 μg/kg ip every 3rd day) initiated at the 4th week of DOCA-salt treatment normalized SBP and decreased CYP1B1 activity but not its expression in the aorta, heart, and kidney. TMS also inhibited cardiovascular and kidney hypertrophy, prevented the increase in vascular reactivity and endothelial dysfunction, and minimized the increase in urinary protein and K(+) output and the decrease in urine osmolality, Na(+) output, and creatinine clearance associated with DOCA-salt treatment. These pathophysiological changes caused by DOCA-salt treatment and associated increase in vascular superoxide production, NADPH oxidase activity, and expression of NOX-1, and ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activities in the aorta, heart, and kidney were inhibited by TMS. These data suggest that CYP1B1 contributes to DOCA-salt-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiological changes, most likely as a result of increased ROS production and ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activity, and could serve as a novel target for the development of agents like TMS to treat hypertension.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3006285[Available on 2011/12/1]