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#28532683   2017/05/23 Save this To Up

The essential oil from the twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl inhibits oxytocin-induced uterine contraction in vitro and in vivo.

The twigs and bark of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Lauraceae) are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of tumor, abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea, digestive system disease and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of the essential oil from the twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (EOCC) on uterine contraction in vitro and in vivo.

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#28483526   2017/05/09 Save this To Up

Inhibition of the high affinity choline transporter enhances hyperalgesia in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis.

The mechanisms underlying chronic and persistent pain associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) are not completely understood. The cholinergic system is one of the major neural pathways of the pancreas. Meanwhile, this system plays an important role in chronic pain. We hypothesized that the high affinity choline transporter CHT1, which is a main determinant of cholinergic signaling capacity, is involved in regulating pain associated with CP.

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#28420461   2017/04/19 Save this To Up

[α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-ΚB].

To investigate the effects of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 macrophages and its molecular mechanisms.

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#28258955   2017/03/04 Save this To Up

Inhibition of Cyclic GMP Export by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A New Strategy to Treat Erectile Dysfunction?

Intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations are regulated by degradation enzymes (phosphodiesterases) and by active transport across the plasma membrane by multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) 4 and 5.

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#28119492   2017/01/25 Save this To Up

Correlation of HLA-DQ and TNF-α gene polymorphisms with ocular myasthenia gravis combined with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

The present study aims to explore the correlation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene polymorphisms with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) combined with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). From March 2009 to March 2015, 56 OMG patients complicated with TAO (OMG + TAO group), 134 patients diagnosed with OMG only (OMG group) and 236 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled in the present study. PCR-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) was used for HLA-DQ genotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for TNF-α genotyping. ELISA kit was applied to detect acetylcholine receptor antibody (AchRAb) level and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) to measure thyroid-associated antibody (T-Ab) level. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to analyse the risk factors for OMG combined with TAO. DQA1*0103 showed lower frequency in the OMG group than in the control group. DQA1*0301 showed increased and DQB1*0601 showed decreased frequency in the OMG + TAO group. DQB1*0501 showed higher frequency in the OMG and OMG + TAO groups than in the control group. Patients carrying TNF-α -863C > A (CA + AA) might confront with greater risks of OMG combined with TAO. Frequency of DQA1*0103/*0301 and DQB1*0501/*0601, and TNF-α -863C > A, -238G > A and -308G > A were associated with the levels of AchRAb and T-Ab. TNF-α -863C > A (CA + AA) and high level of T-Ab were risk factors for OMG combined with TAO. Our results demonstrate that TNF-α -863 polymorphism is possibly correlated with the risk of OMG combined with TAO.

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#27802519   2016/11/01 Save this To Up

Antiapoptotic Effect of Acetylcholine in Fas-Induced Apoptosis in Human Keratocytes.

To investigate the possible antiapoptotic effect of acetylcholine (ACh) in Fas-mediated apoptosis of primary human keratocytes in vitro, and to explore the underlying mechanism.

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#27720999   2016/10/10 Save this To Up

Neurotrophin-3 promotes proliferation and cholinergic neuronal differentiation of bone marrow- derived neural stem cells via notch signaling pathway.

Recently, the potential for neural stem cells (NSCs) to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported; however, the therapeutic effects are modest by virtue of the low neural differentiation rate. In our study, we transfected bone marrow-derived NSCs (BM-NSCs) with Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a superactive neurotrophic factor that promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells, to investigate the effects of NT-3 gene overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron of BM-NSCs in vitro and its possible molecular mechanism.

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#27670444   2016/09/27 Save this To Up

Small cell lung cancer growth is inhibited by miR-342 through its effect of the target gene IA-2.

Small cell lung cancers (SCLC) are tumors of neuroendocrine origin. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory showed that SCLC expresses high levels of the transmembrane dense core vesicle protein IA-2 (islet cell antigen-2) as compared to normal lung cells. IA-2, through its effect on dense core vesicles (DCVs), is known to be involved in the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. It is believed that the dysregulated release of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh) by DCVs has an autocrine effect on SCLC cell growth. Recently, we found that IA-2 is a target of the microRNA miR-342 and that miR-342 mimics suppress the expression of IA-2. The present experiments were initiated to see whether IA-2 and/or miR-342 affect the growth of SCLC.

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#26879866   2016/03/18 Save this To Up

Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB.

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#26490221   2015/11/30 Save this To Up

GTS-21 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in vitro by modulating the Akt and NF-κB signaling pathway through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

GTS-21, a selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, has recently been established as a promising treatment for inflammation. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of GTS-21 in suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production is only partially explored. The study aimed to analyze cytokine expression suppressed by GTS-21 with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro and to gain insights into the role of Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in this process.

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