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Evidence for gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves on indomethacin and stress induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats.

The Cordia dichotoma (CD) is having anticancer and other pharmacological effects as it contains mainly flavonoids. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract of CD leaves (MECD) obtained using Soxhlet extractor. In this study the qualitative phytochemical analysis of MECD revealed the presence of bioflavonoids and determination of quercetin was confirmed by HPLC analysis. The MECD was administered orally at doses 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration and stress-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. Omeprazole at 10 mg/kg orally was used as the reference standard. The various parameters like gastric volume, gastric pH, total acidity, ulcer index, percent protection were estimated for assessment of anti-secretory and gastroprotective effects of MECD. At the same time antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in addition to that inflammatory parameters such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 were also estimated according to their respective method of estimation using analyzing kit. The MECD have reduced gastric volume, total acidity and gastric mucosal damage in both the experimental models significantly and dose dependently as compared with control group. Similarly the antioxidant enzymes like SOD and CAT were increased while MDA levels were decreased significantly, at the same time TNF-α and IL-6 levels were decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels were increased significantly in MECD treated groups. Thus the pretreatment with MECD has shown significant gastroprotective potential probably due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

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Assessment of Salivary Catalase, a-Amylase, and Cotinine Levels in Chronic Smokers: A Comparative Study.

One of the common practices observed in many parts of the world is smoking, of which tobacco forms an important constituent which is burned and inhaled. Smoking is known to have potential effect on body's immune system, antioxidants level, and salivary cotinine levels. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoke on salivary anti-oxidant levels and cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers.

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Triptolide reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and H9C2 cells via inhibition of NF‑κB, ROS and the ERK1/2 pathway.

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces cardiac cell injury; however, the mechanism underlying cardiac damage remains unclear. A previous study demonstrated that triptolide (TP) exerts protective effects against I/R in cerebral cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of TP on cardiac cells, and investigated the potential mechanisms involved in I/R‑induced damage. Rats and cardiac H9C2 cells undergoing I/R were pretreated with TP, and cell damage was assessed in vivo and in vitro. Hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl‑transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining were employed to evaluate I/R injury in rat cardiac tissue. Inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6, were detected by ELISA. Biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the bioactivity of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and catalase. In addition, viability of H9C2 cells was measured using the Cell Counting kit 8 assay. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, the expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis, peroxide and inflammation were measured using western blot analysis. H9C2 cells were also treated with N‑acetylcysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and cell injury was assessed after peroxidation or I/R. The results demonstrated that TP exerted a significant protective effect on cardiac cells in vivo and in vitro. TP reduced the inflammatory response, as determined by nuclear factor‑κB inhibition. In addition, TP decreased ROS‑mediated lipid peroxidation, and reduced ROS generation. TP also inhibited cell apoptosis by activating the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. In conclusion, TP may protect cardiac cells from I/R injury; the potential protective mechanisms of TP against I/R include anti‑inflammatory action, antioxidation and apoptotic resistance.

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PINK1 Protects Auditory Hair Cells and Spiral Ganglion Neurons from Cisplatin-induced Ototoxicity via Inducing Autophagy and Inhibiting JNK Signaling Pathway.

Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase, which acts as a molecular sensor of mitochondrial health necessary for mitochondrial quality control. The present study was designed to examine whether PINK1 expressed in C57BL/6 murine cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and, if so, to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the action of PINK1 in cisplatin-induced death of sensory hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in vitro. The expression pattern of PINK1, formation of parkin particles, and autophagy were determined by immunofluorescent staining. The expressions of PINK1, LC3B, cleaved-caspase 3 and p-JNK were measured by Western blotting. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by DCFH-DA and Mito-Sox Red staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate (TMRM) and Rhodamine 123. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined by CCK8 assay, TUNEL staining and Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit, respectively. We found that PINK1 was widely expressed in the cytoplasm in HCs, SGNs, stria vascularis of C57BL/6 cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and, notably, the expression level in cochlear HCs and SGNs of postnatal day 4 (P4) mice was higher than that in adult mice. Moreover, treatment with 30 μM cisplatin elicited the formation of ROS, which, in turn, led to PINK1 activation, parkin recruitment, autophagy formation and JNK pathway relevant to apoptosis in HEI-OC1 cells, HCs, and SGNs. Meanwhile, co-treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or HO consumer catalase-polyethylene glycol (PEG-catalase) inhibited parkin recruitment, alleviated autophagy formation, and mitigated JNK pathway related apoptosis. In addition, PINK1 silencing resulted in a lower level of autophagy, but, a higher mortality in HEI-OC1 cells treated with cisplatin. Taken together, data from this work reveal that PINK1 possesses the protective effect via induction of autophagy and resistance of apoptosis under cisplatin stimulus in sensory HCs and SGNs, implying that PINK1 might serve as an important regulator of cisplatin-elicited ototoxicity.

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Relationship of antioxidant system and reactive oxygen species with clinical semen parameters in infertile men.

To determine the correlation of antioxidant system and reactive oxygen species with clinical parameters in infertile semen samples.

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Phenotype and genotype of  lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the tiger grouper alimentary tract.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been isolated successfully from the tiger grouper intestine. However, their genus or species have not been identified. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the three isolated LAB (KSBU-12C, KSBU-5Da, and KSBU-9) based on their phenotype and genotype. The LAB phenotype was examined by observing morphological features including cell morphology, spore production and motility. The physiological tests were performed in 6.5% NaCl at the  temperatures of 10 C and 45 C, and the biochemical tests were evaluated based on the production of enzymes catalase, oxidase and arginine dehydrolase, following  the Standard Analytical Profile Index, API 50 CH kit.  The genotype was examined based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis , and the products were analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) NCBI database. The three isolates (KSBU-5Da, KSBU-12C, and KSBU-9) were categorized into the genus . 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the isolates had 99% similarity to ATCC 9790, registered in GenBank with accession number NR_075022.1. It was concluded that the three LAB isolates taken from the tiger grouper are .

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Regulation of TERRA on telomeric and mitochondrial functions in IPF pathogenesis.

Aging is a known risk factor of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the effects of advanced aging remain largely unknown. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) represents a type of long noncoding RNA. In this study, the regulatory roles of TERRA on human telomeres and mitochondria and IPF epithelial injury model were identified.

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Adrenomedullin protects Leydig cells against lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction via MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathways.

This study aimed to explore the possible benefits of adrenomedullin (ADM) in preventing oxidative stress and inflammation by using an in vitro primary culture model of rat Leydig cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell proliferation was detected through CCK-8 and BrdU incorporation assays. ROS were determined with a DCFDA kit, and cytokine concentrations were measured with ELISA assay kits. Protein production was examined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot, and gene expression was observed through RT-qPCR. Results revealed that ADM significantly reduced LPS-induced cytotoxicity, and pretreatment with ADM significantly suppressed ROS overproduction and decreased 4-HNE and 8-OHdG expression levels and concentrations. ADM pretreatment also significantly attenuated the overactivation of enzymatic antioxidants, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. ADM supplementation reversed the significantly increased gene expression levels and concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β1, MCP-1 and MIF. ADM pretreatment significantly inhibited the gene expression and protein production of TLR-2 and 4. Furthermore, ADM pretreatment markedly reduced the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK 1/2 and p38, phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of p65. Our findings demonstrated that ADM protects Leydig cells from LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, which might be associated with MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathways.

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Pachymic acid promotes induction of autophagy related to IGF-1 signaling pathway in WI-38 cells.

The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway has spotlighted as a mechanism to elucidate aging associated with autophagy in recent years. Therefore, we have tried to screen an effective compound capable of inducing autophagy to delay aging process.

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Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis.

Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway.

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