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Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis.

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

1542 related Products with: Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis.

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A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet.

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Biomimetic Bone-like Hydroxyapatite by Mineralization on Supramolecular Porous Fiber Networks.

Hydroxyapatite (HA), the main inorganic component of bone tissue, is mineralized with collagen fibril scaffolds during bone formation. Inspired by the process, a self-assembled porous network architecture was designed and synthesized by using the 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidone (UPy) modified glycerol molecule UPy-Gly, which was further utilized as a template for biomimetic mineralization. When incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF), the HA nucleus first formed in the holes of the template by the induction of hydroxyls on the surface, grew along the nanofibers, and fused with the template to fabricate hydroxyapatite composites (UPy-Gly/HA). Transmission electron microscopic observation demonstrates that the mineral clusters are accumulated by lamella-like nano hydroxyapatite and the elasticity modulus measured by atomic force microscopy is about 5.5 GPa, which is quite close to the natural cancellous bone tissue of human both in structure and in mechanical properties. The Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay of UPy-Gly and UPy-Gly/HA shows noncytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast L-929 cells. This bioinspired composite will be a promising material for potential use in bone tissue implantation and regeneration engineering.

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Metabolism of Foodborne Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016.

The heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is converted into 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1) via a chemical reaction with 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde or acrolein derived from glycerol by reuterin producing gut bacteria. Because it is unknown whether this reaction also applies to other HAAs, seven foodborne HAAs (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman), and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman)) were anaerobically incubated with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 in the presence of glycerol. The extent of conversion, as analyzed by HPLC-DAD/FLD, was dependent on both the studied HAAs and the glucose/glycerol ratio, indicating reuterin to be involved in HAA metabolism. Based on HRMS analyses, PhIP-M1-type metabolites were detected for AαC, Trp-P-1, IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, harman, and norharman. In the case of AαC, this was confirmed by metabolite isolation (AαC-M8, 2,3,4,10-tetrahydro-1H-indolo[2,3-b][1,8]naphthyridin-2-ol) and one- (1H) and two-dimensional (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, DOSY) NMR spectroscopy. In addition, based on HRMS and/or NMR spectroscopy, a new type of HAA metabolite, resulting from the reaction with two molecules of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde or acrolein, is hypothesized for AαC, Trp-P-1, IQ, MeIQ, and MeIQx.

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First study on the formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable state and beer spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri.

This study aimed to investigate the spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri during the induction and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state.

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Purple corn silk: A potential anti-obesity agent with inhibition on adipogenesis and induction on lipolysis and apoptosis in adipocytes.

Corn silk or the stigma of Zea mays L. has traditionally been used in weight loss stimulation and treatment of cystitis, urinary infections and obesity. Purple corn silk, rich of polyphenolic substances, was reported on anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effect in animal studies. However, scientific evidence on mechanisms and targets of action of purple corn silk related to adipocyte life cycle has been limited.

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Towards improved butanol production through targeted genetic modification of Clostridium pasteurianum.

Declining fossil fuel reserves, coupled with environmental concerns over their continued extraction and exploitation have led to strenuous efforts to identify renewable routes to energy and fuels. One attractive option is to convert glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, into n-butanol, an industrially important chemical and potential liquid transportation fuel, using Clostridium pasteurianum. Under certain growth conditions this Clostridium species has been shown to predominantly produce n-butanol, together with ethanol and 1,3-propanediol, when grown on glycerol. Further increases in the yields of n-butanol produced by C. pasteurianum could be accomplished through rational metabolic engineering of the strain. Accordingly, in the current report we have developed and exemplified a robust tool kit for the metabolic engineering of C. pasteurianum and used the system to make the first reported in-frame deletion mutants of pivotal genes involved in solvent production, namely hydA (hydrogenase), rex (Redox response regulator) and dhaBCE (glycerol dehydratase). We were, for the first time in C. pasteurianum, able to eliminate 1,3-propanediol synthesis and demonstrate its production was essential for growth on glycerol as a carbon source. Inactivation of both rex and hydA resulted in increased n-butanol titres, representing the first steps towards improving the utilisation of C. pasteurianum as a chassis for the industrial production of this important chemical.

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Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Lipase Production by Clinical Ocular Isolates Without Affecting Bacterial Cell Viability.

We sought to determine the relative lipase production of a range of ocular bacterial isolates and to assess the efficacy of glycerol monolaurate (GML) in inhibiting this lipase production in high lipase-producing bacteria without affecting bacterial cell growth.

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Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa.

The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future.

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Effects and Molecular Mechanism of GST-Irisin on Lipolysis and Autocrine Function in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

Irisin, which was recently identified as a myokine and an adipokine, transforms white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue and has increasingly caught the attention of the medical and scientific community. However, the signaling pathway of irisin and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the lipolysis effect remain unclear. In this study, we established an efficient system for the expression and purification of GST-irisin in Escherichia coli. The biological activity of GST-irisin was verified using the cell counting kit-8 assay and by detecting the mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1. Our data showed that GST-irisin regulates mRNA levels of lipolysis-related genes such as adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase and proteins such as the fatty acid-binding protein 4, leading to increased secretion of glycerol and decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, exogenous GST-irisin can increase its autocrine function in vitro by regulating the expression of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5. GST-irisin could regulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hence, we believe that recombinant GST-irisin could promote lipolysis and its secretion in vitro and can potentially prevent obesity and related metabolic diseases.

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AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge GST Inhibitor 1 (Cibacron GST Inhibitor 1 (Cibacron GST Inhibitor 2 (Ethacryn Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 removed without changing ABT-263 Mechanisms: Bcl-2 ABT-737 Mechanisms: Bcl-2

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