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#28870477   2017/09/05 Save this To Up

A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet.

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#28803478   2017/08/14 Save this To Up

Biomimetic Bone-like Hydroxyapatite by Mineralization on Supramolecular Porous Fiber Networks.

Hydroxyapatite (HA), the main inorganic component of bone tissue, is mineralized with collagen fibril scaffolds during bone formation. Inspired by the process, a self-assembled porous network architecture was designed and synthesized by using the 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidone (UPy) modified glycerol molecule UPy-Gly, which was further utilized as a template for biomimetic mineralization. When incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF), the HA nucleus first formed in the holes of the template by the induction of hydroxyls on the surface, grew along the nanofibers, and fused with the template to fabricate hydroxyapatite composites (UPy-Gly/HA). Transmission electron microscopic observation demonstrates that the mineral clusters are accumulated by lamella-like nano hydroxyapatite and the elasticity modulus measured by atomic force microscopy is about 5.5 GPa, which is quite close to the natural cancellous bone tissue of human both in structure and in mechanical properties. The Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay of UPy-Gly and UPy-Gly/HA shows noncytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast L-929 cells. This bioinspired composite will be a promising material for potential use in bone tissue implantation and regeneration engineering.

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#28679205   2017/07/06 Save this To Up

Metabolism of Foodborne Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016.

The heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is converted into 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1) via a chemical reaction with 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde or acrolein derived from glycerol by reuterin producing gut bacteria. Because it is unknown whether this reaction also applies to other HAAs, seven foodborne HAAs (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman), and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman)) were anaerobically incubated with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 in the presence of glycerol. The extent of conversion, as analyzed by HPLC-DAD/FLD, was dependent on both the studied HAAs and the glucose/glycerol ratio, indicating reuterin to be involved in HAA metabolism. Based on HRMS analyses, PhIP-M1-type metabolites were detected for AαC, Trp-P-1, IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, harman, and norharman. In the case of AαC, this was confirmed by metabolite isolation (AαC-M8, 2,3,4,10-tetrahydro-1H-indolo[2,3-b][1,8]naphthyridin-2-ol) and one- ((1)H) and two-dimensional (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, DOSY) NMR spectroscopy. In addition, based on HRMS and/or NMR spectroscopy, a new type of HAA metabolite, resulting from the reaction with two molecules of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde or acrolein, is hypothesized for AαC, Trp-P-1, IQ, MeIQ, and MeIQx.

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#28257978   2017/03/04 Save this To Up

Purple corn silk: A potential anti-obesity agent with inhibition on adipogenesis and induction on lipolysis and apoptosis in adipocytes.

Corn silk or the stigma of Zea mays L. has traditionally been used in weight loss stimulation and treatment of cystitis, urinary infections and obesity. Purple corn silk, rich of polyphenolic substances, was reported on anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effect in animal studies. However, scientific evidence on mechanisms and targets of action of purple corn silk related to adipocyte life cycle has been limited.

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#26873514   2016/02/13 Save this To Up

Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Lipase Production by Clinical Ocular Isolates Without Affecting Bacterial Cell Viability.

We sought to determine the relative lipase production of a range of ocular bacterial isolates and to assess the efficacy of glycerol monolaurate (GML) in inhibiting this lipase production in high lipase-producing bacteria without affecting bacterial cell growth.

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#26858542   2016/02/09 Save this To Up

Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa.

The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future.

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#26799325   2016/01/23 Save this To Up

Effects and Molecular Mechanism of GST-Irisin on Lipolysis and Autocrine Function in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

Irisin, which was recently identified as a myokine and an adipokine, transforms white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue and has increasingly caught the attention of the medical and scientific community. However, the signaling pathway of irisin and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the lipolysis effect remain unclear. In this study, we established an efficient system for the expression and purification of GST-irisin in Escherichia coli. The biological activity of GST-irisin was verified using the cell counting kit-8 assay and by detecting the mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1. Our data showed that GST-irisin regulates mRNA levels of lipolysis-related genes such as adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase and proteins such as the fatty acid-binding protein 4, leading to increased secretion of glycerol and decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, exogenous GST-irisin can increase its autocrine function in vitro by regulating the expression of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5. GST-irisin could regulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hence, we believe that recombinant GST-irisin could promote lipolysis and its secretion in vitro and can potentially prevent obesity and related metabolic diseases.

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#26714616   2016/03/29 Save this To Up

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-induced mice liver defatting: A novel strategy to enable transplantation of steatotic livers.

Moderate macrovesicular steatosis (>30%), which is present in almost 50% of livers considered for transplantation, increases the risk of primary graft dysfunction. Our previously published data showed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is protective against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. Hence, we hypothesized that perfusion of steatotic livers with GDNF may reduce liver fat content before transplantation. Livers from 8 weeks of regular diet (RD) and of HFD-fed mice were perfused ex vivo for 4 hours with either vehicle, GDNF, or a previously described defatting cocktail. The liver's residual fat was quantified colorimetrically using a triglyceride (TG) assay kit and by Oil Red O (ORO) and Nile red/Hoechst staining. Liver tissue injury was assessed by using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. In vitro induction of lipolysis in HepG2 cells was assessed by measuring glycerol and free fatty acid release. ORO staining showed significantly more steatosis in livers from HFD-fed mice compared with RD-fed mice (P < 0.001). HFD livers perfused with GDNF had significantly less steatosis than those not perfused (P = 0.001) or perfused with vehicle (P < 0.05). GDNF is equally effective in steatotic liver defatting compared to the defatting cocktail; however, GDNF induces less liver damage than the defatting cocktail. These observations were consistent with data obtained from assessment of liver TG content. Assessment of liver injury revealed significant hepatocyte injury in livers perfused with the control defatting cocktail but no evidence of injury in livers perfused with either GDNF or vehicle. In vitro, GDNF reduced TG accumulation in HepG2 cells and stimulated increased TG lipolysis. In conclusion, GDNF can decrease mice liver fat content to an acceptable range and could be a potential defatting agent before liver transplantation.

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#26543271   2015/11/06 Save this To Up

Improvement in Oil Production by Increasing Malonyl-CoA and Glycerol-3-Phosphate Pools in Scenedesmus quadricauda.

In recent years, microalgae have attracted considerable interest as a biofuel resource owing to their rapid growth, tolerance to harsh conditions, and ability to accumulate a large amount of triacylglycerols (TAGs). However, the economic effectiveness of algal biofuel is still low. In this study, we attempted to increase oil production of the microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda by elevating intracellular malonyl-CoA and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) pools. To increase intracellular oil content, yeast-derived genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), glycerol kinase (GPD1), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GUT1) were overexpressed under the control of CaMV 35S and NOS promoters with SV40 large T antigen components. Fatty acid profiling, G3P content, and the number of cells with high oil content were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, G3P assay kit, and flow cytometry, respectively. Overexpression of ACC1 increased the total fatty acid content by 1.6-fold. Overexpression of GPD1 and GUT1 increased intracellular G3P content by 1.6- and 1.9-fold, respectively. Multi-gene expression of ACC1, GPD1, and GUT1 increased the number of cells with high oil content by 1.45-fold compared with that observed with the wild-type. This study is the first to report increased oil production by overexpression of the key genes (ACC1, GPD1, and GUT1) for TAG biosynthesis in microalgae.

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#26204399   2015/07/24 Save this To Up

Flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis in cryoconserved chicken primordial germ cells.

Our research aimed to compare the effects of four cryoprotectants and four slow freezing programs on the viability and apoptosis of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in vitro. PGCs were collected from chicken embryonic blood at Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stages 14-16 and purified by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and then subjected to cryopreservation. We applied microscopy to determine the survival of PGCs after trypan blue staining and flow cytometry to examine apoptosis and viability after annexin V kit staining. We also examined the functionality of cryopreserved PGCs in vivo. Significant differences in viability of PGCs determined via microscopy and flow cytometry were observed. The most unfavorable combination for slow freezing PGCs was program 3 and MIX H (10% DMSO and 5% glycerol in Hank's solution supplemented with 10% FBS) as the cryoprotectant (48.43 and 15.37% live and early apoptotic PGCs, respectively). The highest average percentage of live PGCs (93.1%) and the lowest percentage of early apoptotic PGCs (6.5%) were achieved by slow freezing PGCs in the presence of DMSO F (10% DMSO in FBS) via program 1. Therefore, this method was chosen for the in vivo test. Cryopreserved (group 1) and freshly isolated (group 2) PGCs were transfectedwith a pEGFP-N1 plasmid, cultured under antibiotic selection, and then injected into 3-day-old embryos. After 5 days of incubation, we identified the EGFP marker gene in the gonads of 40 and 45% of recipients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. This is the first study to apply flow cytometry to examine the apoptosis and viability of cryopreserved PGCs. The in vitro and in vivo findings showed that the developed PGC cryoconservation method, depending on slow freezing at the rate of 2°C/min (program 1) in the presence of 10% DMSO F, is an improvement over previous cryoconservation methods and may be a useful tool for the ex situ strategy of poultry biodiversity preservation.

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