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Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis.

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

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The Room-Temperature Chemiresistive Properties of Potassium Titanate Whiskers versus Organic Vapors.

The development of portable gas-sensing units implies a special care of their power efficiency, which is often approached by operation at room temperature. This issue primarily appeals to a choice of suitable materials whose functional properties are sensitive toward gas vapors at these conditions. While the gas sensitivity is nowadays advanced by employing the materials at nano-dimensional domain, the room temperature operation might be targeted via the application of layered solid-state electrolytes, like titanates. Here, we report gas-sensitive properties of potassium titanate whiskers, which are placed over a multielectrode chip by drop casting from suspension to yield a matrix mono-layer of varied density. The material synthesis conditions are straightforward both to get stable single-crystalline quasi-one-dimensional whiskers with a great extent of potassium replacement and to favor the increase of specific surface area of the structures. The whisker layer is found to be sensitive towards volatile organic compounds (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone) in the mixture with air at room temperature. The vapor identification is obtained via processing the vector signal generated by sensor array of the multielectrode chip with the help of pattern recognition algorithms.

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Potassium Ferrocyanide S Potassium Ferrocyanide S Potassium Ferrocyanide S Potassium Ferrocyanide S Potassium Ferrocyanide S Potassium Hydroxide Solu Potassium Hydroxide Solu Potassium Metabisulfite Potassium Metabisulfite Potassium Metabisulfite Potassium Permanganate S Potassium Permanganate S

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Cytotoxic Activities of Fractions of the Willow Bracket Medicinal Mushroom, Phellinus igniarius (Agaricomycetes), and the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in MGC-803 Cells.

Phellinus igniarius, a perennial medicinal mushroom, has been used in China and other countries of East Asia for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of different fractions of an ethanol extract from Ph. igniarius and to elucidate a possible antitumor mechanism. An ethanol extract of Ph. igniarius was partitioned into a petroleum ether fraction, an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), an n-butanol fraction, and a water-soluble fraction. The cytotoxic activity of all the fractions was initially screened in a brine shrimp lethality test, then evaluated by the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay against 5 human tumor cell lines: MGC-803, BEL-7402, HeLa, MCF-7, and HCT-116. The cell cycle distribution induced by EAF on MGC-803 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining, and apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The results of the brine shrimp lethality test and the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that EAF was the most active fraction, displaying strong inhibitory activity against the MGC-803, BEL-7402, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that EAF could induce S-phase cell cycle arrest in MGC-803 cells and cause apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that EAF, as the most active fraction of Ph. igniarius, exerted antitumor activity by inducing MGC-803 cell apoptosis via S-phase cell cycle arrest.

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Measurement uncertainty of blood ethanol concentration in drink-driving cases in an emergency laboratory.

The quality of blood ethanol concentration (BEC) determination is important because of its legal ramifications. Measurement uncertainty provides quantitative information about the quality and reliability of test results. In this study, we aim to calculate the measurement uncertainty for the ethanol test in our laboratory measured with a Synchron Systems Ethanol assay kit by employing an enzymatic rate method on the Beckman-Coulter Olympus AU400 auto analyzer (Beckman Coulter Inc, Melville, USA).

1772 related Products with: Measurement uncertainty of blood ethanol concentration in drink-driving cases in an emergency laboratory.

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Effects of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Regeneration of Damaged Endometrium in Female Rats.

To investigate whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment can improve regeneration of the endometrium in an experimental model of ethanol-induced damage.

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Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoids from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Salvia plebeia: Regulates pro-inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NF-κB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways in LPS-induced Raw264.7 cells.

Salvia plebeia R. Brown, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been used to treat inflammatory diseases such as cough, hepatitis, and diarrhea for a long history.

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Fibrosis in small syngeneic rat liver grafts because of damaged bone marrow stem cells from chronic alcohol consumption.

A patient with liver failure due to chronic and acute alcohol abuse under consideration for an urgent liver transplant shortly after stopping alcohol may have residual abnormalities that threaten transplant success, particularly for a small graft. To address this, we studied a model in which reduced-size (50%) Lewis rat livers are transplanted into green fluorescence protein transgenic Lewis recipients after they are fed alcohol or a control diet for 5 weeks. Here we show that normal small Lewis grafts transplanted to alcohol-fed Lewis hosts developed fibrosis, whereas no fibrosis was observed in control-fed recipients. Host-derived CD133 + 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) cells were significantly increased in livers recovered from both alcohol-fed and control recipients, but only alcohol-fed recipients demonstrated co-staining (a marker of oxidative DNA damage). α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining, a marker for myofibroblasts, also co-localized with CD133 + cells only in the livers of alcohol-fed recipients. Immunostaining and polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that chronic alcohol consumption decreased the proportion of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) expressing CD133, c-Kit, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 markers and caused oxidative mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) damage. Culture of CD133 + cells from normal rats with medium containing 3% ethanol for 48 hours resulted in elevated mitochondrial 8-OHdG and mtDNA deletion, and ethanol exposure diminished CD133 expression but dramatically increased α-SMA expression. In conclusion, oxidative mtDNA damage and deletions occur in BMSCs of chronic alcohol-fed recipients, and these damaged cells mobilize to the small liver grafts and become myofibroblasts where they play a key role in the subsequent development of fibrosis. Liver Transplantation 23 1564-1576 2017 AASLD.

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Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples.

The environmental DNA (eDNA) method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days). This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

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New synthesis route of active substance d,l-HMPAO for preparation Technetium Tc99m Exametazime.

Technetium Tc99m Exametazime (99mTc-HMPAO) is currently used as a radiopharmaceutical for determining regional cerebral blood flow and for the labelling of autologous leucocytes for infection and inflammation imaging. The HMPAO ligand exists in two diastereomeric forms: d,l and meso. Usually, the substance is obtained in low chemical yield in a time consuming procedure. Furthermore, the final product still contains some amounts of the meso-form. The aim of this study was to develop the efficient, reliable and fast method for isolation of the d,l-HMPAO, which would provide the ligand with high purity and free from the meso-diastereomer.

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NADH autofluorescence, a new metabolic biomarker for cancer stem cells: Identification of Vitamin C and CAPE as natural products targeting "stemness".

Here, we assembled a broad molecular "tool-kit" to interrogate the role of metabolic heterogeneity in the propagation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). First, we subjected MCF7 cells to "metabolic fractionation" by flow cytometry, using fluorescent mitochondrial probes to detect PCG1α activity, as well ROS and hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2) production; NADH levels were also monitored by auto-fluorescence. Then, the various cell populations were functionally assessed for "stem cell activity", using the mammosphere assay (3D-spheroids). Our results indicate that a sub-population of MCF7 cells, with increased PGC1α activity, high mitochondrial ROS/H2O2 production and high NADH levels, all form mammospheres with a higher efficiency. Thus, it appears that mitochondrial oxidative stress and the anti-oxidant response both contribute to the promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism in CSCs. Further validation was provided by using specific inhibitors to target metabolic processes (the NAD+ salvage pathway, glycolysis, mitochondrial protein synthesis and OXPHOS), significantly reducing CSC propagation. As a consequence, we have now identified a variety of clinically-approved drugs (stiripentol), natural products (caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE), ascorbic acid, silibinin) and experimental pharmaceuticals (actinonin, FK866, 2-DG), that can be used to effectively inhibit CSC activity. We discuss the use of CAPE (derived from honey-bee propolis) and Vitamin C, as potential natural therapeutic modalities. In this context, Vitamin C was ~10 times more potent than 2-DG for the targeting of CSCs. Similarly, stiripentol was between 50 to 100 times more potent than 2-DG.

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