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#28912782   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B.

Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni(2+) increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B complex to prevent C3 convertase formation (C3b-Bb formation) is a novel mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement system.

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#28912140   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

Down-regulation of SAFB sustains the NF-κB pathway by targeting TAK1 during the progression of colorectal cancer.

To investigate the role and the underlying mechanism of scaffold attachment factor B (SAFB) in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC).

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#28901193   2017/09/13 Save this To Up

ERK and p38 Upregulation versus Bcl-6 Downregulation in Rat Kidney Epithelial Cells Exposed to Prolonged Hypoxia.

Hypoxia is a common cause of kidney injury and a major issue in kidney transplantation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the cellular response to hypoxia, but the precise roles of MAPKs in renal cell reactions to hypoxic stress are not well known yet. This work was conducted to investigate the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) and p38 and their signaling-relevant molecules in kidney epithelial cells exposed to prolonged hypoxia. Rat kidney epithelial cells Normal Rat Kidney (NRK)-52E were exposed to hypoxic conditions (1% O2) for 24 to 72 h. Cell morphology was examined by light microscopy, and cell viability was checked by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-5-[3-carboxymethoxypheny]-2-[4-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium (MTS). The expression of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, as well as their signaling-related molecules, was measured by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain (RT-PCR) reaction. At the 1% oxygen level, cell morphology had no appreciable changes compared to the control up to 72 h of exposure under light microscopy, whereas the results of MTS showed a slight but significant reduction in cell viability after 72 h of hypoxia. On the other hand, ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation remarkably increased in these cells after 24 to 72 h of hypoxia. In sharp contrast, the expression of transcription factor B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6) was significantly downregulated in response to hypoxic stress. Other intracellular molecules relevant to the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathway, such as protein kinase A, protein kinase C, Bcl-2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, tristetraprolin, and interleukin-10(IL-10), had no significant alterations after 24 to 72 h of hypoxic exposure. We conclude that hypoxic stress increases the phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and p38 but decreases the level of Bcl-6 in rat kidney epithelial cells.

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#28894700   2017/09/12 Save this To Up

Targeting the Type II Secretion System: Development, Optimization, and Validation of a High-Throughput Screen for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors.

Nosocomial pathogens that develop multidrug resistance present an increasing problem for healthcare facilities. Due to its rapid rise in antibiotic resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most concerning gram-negative species. A. baumannii typically infects immune compromised individuals resulting in a variety of outcomes, including pneumonia and bacteremia. Using a murine model for bacteremia, we have previously shown that the type II secretion system (T2SS) contributes to in vivo fitness of A. baumannii. Here, we provide support for a role of the T2SS in protecting A. baumannii from human complement as deletion of the T2SS gene gspD resulted in a 100-fold reduction in surviving cells when incubated with human serum. This effect was abrogated in the absence of Factor B, a component of the alternative pathway of complement activation, indicating that the T2SS protects A. baumannii against the alternative complement pathway. Because inactivation of the T2SS results in loss of secretion of multiple enzymes, reduced in vivo fitness, and increased sensitivity to human complement, the T2SS may be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. Accordingly, we developed and optimized a whole-cell high-throughput screening (HTS) assay based on secreted lipase activity to identify small molecule inhibitors of the T2SS. We tested the reproducibility of our assay using a 6,400-compound library. With small variation within controls and a dynamic range between positive and negative controls, the assay had a z-factor of 0.65, establishing its suitability for HTS. Our screen identified the lipase inhibitors Orlistat and Ebelactone B demonstrating the specificity of the assay. To eliminate inhibitors of lipase activity and lipase expression, two counter assays were developed and optimized. By implementing these assays, all seven tricyclic antidepressants present in the library were found to be inhibitors of the lipase, highlighting the potential of identifying alternative targets for approved pharmaceuticals. Although no T2SS inhibitor was identified among the compounds that reduced lipase activity by ≥30%, our small proof-of-concept pilot study indicates that the HTS regimen is simple, reproducible, and specific and that it can be used to screen larger libraries for the identification of T2SS inhibitors that may be developed into novel A. baumannii therapeutics.

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#28855816   2017/08/31 Save this To Up

Identification of novel inhibitors against Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9/Cyclin T1 complex as: Anti cancer agent.

Cell cycle consists of different types of phases, transition from G1, S, G2, M. Inhibition of associated CDKs like CDK9/Cyclin T1 complex, which are indirectly involved in the Cell cycle progression in the form of transcription elongation, reduces diverse diseases such as Cardiac Hypertrophy, Alzheimer's, Cancer, AIDS and Inflammation. Glide tool of the Schrodinger software has been used for performing Structure Based Virtual Screening and Docking against Drug Bank and MDPI database. The best hits were identified which go and bind in the active site of the target where ATP binds for the activity. The ADMET, MM-GBSA and DFT analysis is also done for the same. Compound 4-{4-[4-(3-aminopropoxy)phenyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl}-6-chlorobenzene-1,3-diol (DB08045) was found to be more potent, novel and selective as an inhibitor. Hopefully compound (DB08045) could be used as an anti-cancer agent for the treatment of life-threatening diseases.

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#28855795   2017/08/31 Save this To Up

Reduction in ocular complement factor B protein in mice and monkeys by systemic administration of factor B antisense oligonucleotide.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of permanent vision loss among the elderly in many industrialized countries, and the complement system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AMD. Inhibition of complement factor B, a key regulator of the alternative pathway, is implicated as a potential therapeutic intervention for AMD. Here we investigated the effect of liver factor B reduction on systemic and ocular factor B levels.

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#28851707   2017/08/30 Save this To Up

Smooth muscle cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels requires PDGFB and impacts vessel size but not identity.

Tissue-fluid drains through blind-ended lymphatic capillaries, via smooth muscle cell (SMC)-covered collecting vessels into venous circulation. Both defective SMC recruitment to collecting vessels and ectopic recruitment to lymphatic capillaries are thought to contribute to vessel failure, leading to lymphedema. However, mechanisms controlling lymphatic SMC recruitment and their role in vessel maturation are unknown. Here we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) regulates lymphatic SMC recruitment in multiple vascular beds. PDGFB is selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of collecting vessels. LEC-specific deletion of Pdgfb prevented SMC recruitment causing dilation and failure of pulsatile contraction of collecting vessels. However, vessel remodelling and identity were unaffected. Unexpectedly, PDGFB overexpression in LECs did not induce SMC recruitment to capillaries. This was explained by the demonstrated requirement of PDGFB extracellular matrix (ECM) retention for lymphatic SMC recruitment, and low presence of PDGFB-binding ECM components around lymphatic capillaries. These results demonstrate a requirement of LEC-autonomous PDGFB expression and retention for SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels and suggest an ECM-controlled checkpoint preventing SMC investment of capillaries, which is a common feature in lymphedematous skin.

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#28847727   2017/08/29 Save this To Up

Studies on anti-angiogenesis of ginsenoside structure modification HRG in vitro.

This study investigates the anti-angiogenic effect of 3β, 12β, 20(S)-trihydroxy dammarane-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-β-d-glucopyranoside(HRG), a new chemical compound obtained by structure modification on Ginseng saponins Rg3, associated with the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) and its upstream signal-regulated molecule of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor(b-FGF) in vitro, which plays an critical role in angiogenesis during the process of carcinoma. In our study, to investigate the anti-angiogenesis effect of HRG in HUVECs, we utilized cell proliferation assay, tube formation assay, wound-healing assay, Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and Western blot assay. Our results demonstrated that HRG plays a major role in the regulation of proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs by suppressing the expression of VEGF and b-FGF in both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In addition, the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which were related to the ECM degradation, were down-regulated after administration of HRG as well. Overall, our results revealed that HRG strongly inhibited the process of angiogenesis and shows better effectiveness than Rg3.

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#28827286   2017/08/22 Save this To Up

Anti-Cancer Drug HMBA Acts as an Adjuvant during Intracellular Bacterial Infections by Inducing Type I IFN through STING.

The anti-proliferative agent hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) belongs to a class of hybrid bipolar compounds developed more than 30 y ago for their ability to induce terminal differentiation of transformed cells. Recently, HMBA has also been shown to trigger HIV transcription from latently infected cells, via a CDK9/HMBA inducible protein-1 dependent process. However, the effect of HMBA on the immune response has not been explored. We observed that pretreatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with HMBA led to a markedly increased production of IL-12 and IFN-γ, but not of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 upon subsequent infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei and Salmonella enterica HMBA treatment was also associated with better intracellular bacterial control. HMBA significantly improved IL-12p70 production from CD14(+) monocytes during infection partly via the induction of type I IFN in these cells, which primed an increased transcription of the p35 subunit of IL-12p70 during infection. HMBA also increased early type I IFN transcription in human monocytic and epithelial cell lines, but this was surprisingly independent of its previously reported effects on positive transcription elongation factor b and HMBA inducible protein-1. Instead, the effect of HMBA was downstream of a calcium influx, and required the pattern recognition receptor and adaptor STING but not cGAS. Our work therefore links the STING-IRF3 axis to enhanced IL-12 production and intracellular bacterial control in primary monocytes. This raises the possibility that HMBA or related small molecules may be explored as therapeutic adjuvants to improve disease outcomes during intracellular bacterial infections.

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#28821630   2017/08/19 Save this To Up

IL-17A deficiency mitigates bleomycin-induced complement activation during lung fibrosis.

Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and complement (C') activation have each been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have reported that IL-17A induces epithelial injury via TGF-β in murine bronchiolitis obliterans; that TGF-β and the C' cascade present signaling interactions in mediating epithelial injury; and that the blockade of C' receptors mitigates lung fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-17A in regulating C' in lung fibrosis. Microarray analyses of mRNA isolated from primary normal human small airway epithelial cells indicated that IL-17A (100 ng/ml; 24 h; n = 5 donor lungs) induces C' components (C' factor B, C3, and GPCR kinase isoform 5), cytokines (IL8, -6, and -1B), and cytokine ligands (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, -6, and -16). IL-17A induces protein and mRNA regulation of C' components and the synthesis of active C' 3a (C3a) in normal primary human alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECs). Wild-type mice subjected to IL-17A neutralization and IL-17A knockout (il17a(-/-) ) mice were protected against bleomycin (BLEO)-induced fibrosis and collagen deposition. Further, BLEO-injured il17a(-/-) mice had diminished levels of circulating Krebs Von Den Lungen 6 (alveolar epithelial injury marker), local caspase-3/7, and local endoplasmic reticular stress-related genes. BLEO-induced local C' activation [C3a, C5a, and terminal C' complex (C5b-9)] was attenuated in il17a(-/-) mice, and IL-17A neutralization prevented the loss of epithelial C' inhibitors (C' receptor-1 related isoform Y and decay accelerating factor), and an increase in local TUNEL levels. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of il17a in fibrotic mice arrested the progression of lung fibrosis, attenuated cellular apoptosis (caspase-3/7) and lung deposition of collagen and C' (C5b-9). Compared to normals, plasma from IPF patients showed significantly higher hemolytic activity. Our findings demonstrate that limiting complement activation by neutralizing IL-17A is a potential mechanism in ameliorating lung fibrosis.-Cipolla, E., Fisher, A. J., Gu, H., Mickler, E. A., Agarwal, M., Wilke, C. A., Kim, K. K., Moore, B. B., Vittal, R. IL-17A deficiency mitigates bleomycin-induced complement activation during lung fibrosis.

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