Search results for: Factor VlllC antibody, Monoclonal Antibodies, Host Mouse, Isotype IgG2a
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Maternally Acquired Zika Antibodies Enhance Dengue Disease Severity in Mice.Antibody (Ab)-dependent enhancement can exacerbate dengue virus (DENV) infection due to cross-reactive Abs from an initial DENV infection, facilitating replication of a second DENV. Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in DENV-endemic areas, raising questions about whether existing immunity could affect these related flaviviruses. We show that mice born with circulating maternal Abs against ZIKV develop severe disease upon DENV infection. Compared with pups of naive mothers, those born to ZIKV-immune mice lacking type I interferon receptor in myeloid cells (LysMCreIfnar1) exhibit heightened disease and viremia upon DENV infection. Passive transfer of IgG isolated from mice born to ZIKV-immune mothers resulted in increased viremia in naive recipient mice. Treatment with Abs blocking inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor linked to DENV disease or Abs blocking DENV entry improved survival of DENV-infected mice born to ZIKV-immune mothers. Thus, the maternal Ab response to ZIKV infection or vaccination might predispose to severe dengue disease in infants.
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Proteolytic single hinge cleavage of pertuzumab impairs its Fc effector function and antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo.Proteolytic impairment of the Fc effector functions of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can compromise their antitumor efficacy in the tumor microenvironment and may represent an unappreciated mechanism of host immune evasion. Pertuzumab is a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeting antibody and has been widely used in the clinic in combination with trastuzumab for treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Pertuzumab susceptibility to proteolytic hinge cleavage and its impact on the drug's efficacy has not been previously studied.
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Blocking TWEAK-Fn14 interaction inhibits hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-induced intestinal cell death and reduces GVHD.Inhibition of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)/fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) system reduces intestinal cell death and disease development in several models of colitis. In view of the crucial role of TNF and intestinal cell death in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the ability of TWEAK to enhance TNF-induced cell death, we tested here the therapeutic potential of Fn14 blockade on allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT)-induced intestinal GVHD. An Fn14-specific blocking human immunoglobulin G1 antibody variant with compromised antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity strongly inhibited the severity of murine allo-HCT-induced GVHD. Treatment of the allo-HCT recipients with this monoclonal antibody reduced cell death of gastrointestinal cells but neither affected organ infiltration by donor T cells nor cytokine production. Fn14 blockade also inhibited intestinal cell death in mice challenged with TNF. This suggests that the protective effect of Fn14 blockade in allo-HCT is based on the protection of intestinal cells from TNF-induced apoptosis and not due to immune suppression. Importantly, Fn14 blockade showed no negative effect on graft-versus-leukemia/lymphoma (GVL) activity. Thus, ADCC-defective Fn14-blocking antibodies are not only possible novel GVL effect-sparing therapeutics for the treatment of GVHD but might also be useful for the treatment of other inflammatory bowel diseases where TNF-induced cell death is of relevance.
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Discovery of anti-claudin-1 antibodies as candidate therapeutics against hepatitis C virus.Claudin-1 (CLDN1), a known host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry and cell-to-cell transmission, is a target molecule for inhibiting HCV infection. We previously developed four clones of mouse anti-CLDN1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that prevented HCV infection in vitro. Two of these mAbs showed the highest antiviral activity. Here, we optimized the anti-CLDN1 mAbs as candidates for therapeutics by protein engineering. Although Fab fragments of the mAbs prevented in vitro HCV infection, their inhibitory effects were much weaker than those of the whole mAbs. In contrast, human chimeric IgG1 mAbs generated by grafting the variable domains of the mouse mAb light and heavy chains inhibited in vitro HCV infection as efficiently as the parental mouse mAbs. However, the chimeric IgG1 mAbs activated Fcγ receptor, suggesting that cytotoxicity against mAb-bound CLDN1-expressing cells occurred through the induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). To avoid ADCC-induced side effects, we prepared human chimeric IgG4 mAbs. The chimeric IgG4 mAbs did not activate Fcγ receptor or induce ADCC, but they prevented in vitro HCV infection as efficiently as did the parental mouse mAbs. These findings indicate that the IgG4 form of human chimeric anti-CLDN1 mAb may be a candidate molecule for clinically applicable HCV therapy.
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A new strategy to deliver synthetic protein drugs: self-reproducible biologics using minicircles.Biologics are the most successful drugs used in anticytokine therapy. However, they remain partially unsuccessful because of the elevated cost of their synthesis and purification. Development of novel biologics has also been hampered by the high cost. Biologics are made of protein components; thus, theoretically, they can be produced in vivo. Here we tried to invent a novel strategy to allow the production of synthetic drugs in vivo by the host itself. The recombinant minicircles encoding etanercept or tocilizumab, which are synthesized currently by pharmaceutical companies, were injected intravenously into animal models. Self-reproduced etanercept and tocilizumab were detected in the serum of mice. Moreover, arthritis subsided in mice that were injected with minicircle vectors carrying biologics. Self-reproducible biologics need neither factory facilities for drug production nor clinical processes, such as frequent drug injection. Although this novel strategy is in its very early conceptual stage, it seems to represent a potential alternative method for the delivery of biologics.
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IgG1 anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies induce CD8-dependent antitumor activity.Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAb) like Cetuximab are commonly used for treatment of EGFR+ solid tumors mainly by exerting their therapeutic effect through inhibition of signal transduction. Additionally, IgG1 is a potent mediator of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC). In case of the IgG1, Cetuximab induction of ADCC in vivo is controversially discussed. In our study, we investigated the efficiency of Cetuximab-mediated ADCC in a humanized mouse tumor model in vivo and analyzed the contribution of immunologic processes toward antitumor activity. Therefore, we used immunodeficient NOD/Scid mice transgenic for human MHC class I molecule HLA-A2 and adoptively transferred human HLA-A2+ PBMC after engraftment of human epidermoid cell carcinoma A431. Here, we show that high doses of anti-EGFR mAb induced strong tumor regression independent of the immune system. However, tumor regression by low doses of anti-EGFR mAb treatment was ADCC dependent and mediated by tumor infiltrating CD8+ T effector cells. This novel mechanism of ADCC conducted by CD8+ T effector cells was restricted to IgG1 anti-EGFR mAb, dependent of binding to CD16 on T cells and could be inhibited after EGFR blockade on tumor cells. Furthermore, CD8+ T effector cell-mediated ADCC was enhanced in the presence of IL-15 and strongly improved after glycosylation of anti-EGFR mAb indicating the potential of glycoengineered therapeutic mAb as efficient biologicals in cancer therapy.
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Antibody to a conserved antigenic target is protective against diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens.Microbial capsular antigens are effective vaccines but are chemically and immunologically diverse, resulting in a major barrier to their use against multiple pathogens. A β-(1→6)-linked poly-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) surface capsule is synthesized by four proteins encoded in genetic loci designated intercellular adhesion in Staphylococcus aureus or polyglucosamine in selected Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. We report that many microbial pathogens lacking an identifiable intercellular adhesion or polyglucosamine locus produce PNAG, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal pathogens, as well as protozoa, e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, Plasmodium berghei, and sporozoites and blood-stage forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Natural antibody to PNAG is common in humans and animals and binds primarily to the highly acetylated glycoform of PNAG but is not protective against infection due to lack of deposition of complement opsonins. Polyclonal animal antibody raised to deacetylated glycoforms of PNAG and a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that both bind to native and deacetylated glycoforms of PNAG mediated complement-dependent opsonic or bactericidal killing and protected mice against local and/or systemic infections by Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, Candida albicans, and P. berghei ANKA, and against colonic pathology in a model of infectious colitis. PNAG is also a capsular polysaccharide for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and nontypable Hemophilus influenzae, and protects cells from environmental stress. Vaccination targeting PNAG could contribute to immunity against serious and diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, and the conserved production of PNAG suggests that it is a critical factor in microbial biology.
2644 related Products with: Antibody to a conserved antigenic target is protective against diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens.Clostridum difficile toxi MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD19 RPE MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Clostridum difficile toxi Rabbit Anti-Eukaryotic as Rabbit Anti-Eukaryotic as Diphtheria toxin antibody Shiga Toxin 1 antibody, M MOUSE ANTI APAAP COMPLEX, Rabbit Anti-Eukaryotic as Clostridum difficile toxi Cholera toxin antibody, M
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Enforced covalent trimerisation of soluble feline CD134 (OX40)-ligand generates a functional antagonist of feline immunodeficiency virus.The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) targets activated CD4-positive helper T cells preferentially, inducing an AIDS-like immunodeficiency in its natural host species, the domestic cat. The primary receptor for FIV is CD134, a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and all primary viral strains tested to date use CD134 for infection. To investigate the effect of the natural ligand for CD134 on FIV infection, feline CD134L was cloned and expressed in soluble forms. However, in contrast to murine or human CD134L, soluble feline CD134L (sCD134L) did not bind to CD134. Receptor-binding activity was restored by enforced covalent trimerisation following the introduction of a synthetic trimerisation domain from tenascin (TNC). Feline and human TNC-CD134Ls retained the species-specificity of the membrane-bound forms of the ligand while murine TNC-CD134L displayed promiscuous binding to feline, human or murine CD134. Feline and murine TNC-CD134Ls were antagonists of FIV infection; however, potency was both strain-specific and substrate-dependent, indicating that the modulatory effects of endogenous sCD134L, or exogenous CD134Lbased therapeutics, may vary depending on the viral strain.
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Depletion of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibits local tumour growth in a mouse model of B cell lymphoma.Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) may inhibit immunity against cancer. Induction and expansion of T(regs) in the immunosuppressive microenvironment created by a growing tumour appear to be one of the mechanisms by which it can evade host defence. We studied the impact of CD25+ T(regs) in a B cell lymphoma model in which Rag2-/- mice received adoptive transfer of wild-type spleen cells with or without CD25+ cells, and concurrently subcutaneous inoculation of the B cell lymphoma cell line A20. We also examined the effect of engaging the glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR) - an approach reported previously to abrogate the suppressive effects of T(regs). Mice that received spleen cells depleted of CD25+ T(regs) showed significantly slower tumour growth and increased survival compared with mice that received unsorted spleen cells. The T(reg)-depleted group also had significantly more CD8+ T cells infiltrating the tumours and higher levels of serum immunoglobulin G subclasses. The anti-GITR treatment had no significant effect on tumour growth, survival or immunoglobulin production. In the CD25-depleted group four of 10 mice developed clinical signs of autoimmunity, in contrast to none in the non-depleted group. Forkhead box P3+ T cells were found in tumour-draining lymph nodes in mice in the CD25-depleted group, suggesting an in vivo induction or expansion of rare transferred donor T(regs). Thus, our study showed that removal of CD25+ T(regs) enhanced anti-tumour immunity against local growth of a B cell lymphoma and that induction or expansion of T(regs) could be one mechanism by which the growing tumour evades immune surveillance.
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Neutrophils play an important role in host resistance to respiratory infection with Acinetobacter baumannii in mice.Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of both community-associated and nosocomial pneumonia, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of host defense against respiratory infection with this bacterial pathogen. In this study, we examined the role of neutrophils in host resistance to pulmonary A. baumannii infection in a mouse model of intranasal (i.n.) infection. We found that neutrophils were rapidly recruited to the lungs following i.n. inoculation of the pathogen and declined to baseline level upon clearance of the infection. Depletion of neutrophils using monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 prior to infection resulted in an acute lethal infection that was associated with enhanced bacterial burdens in the lung (P < 0.05) and extrapulmonary dissemination to the spleen. The increased susceptibility to A. baumannii in neutropenic mice was associated with a delay in the mRNA expression and production of early proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs and development of severe bronchopneumonia and lymphoid tissue destruction in the spleen. Moreover, i.n. administration of the neutrophil-inducing chemokine MIP-2 to normal mice induced a pulmonary influx of neutrophils and significantly enhanced the clearance of A. baumannii from the lungs (P < 0.01). These results imply that neutrophils play a critical role in host resistance to respiratory A. baumannii infection.
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