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Defective Circulating Regulatory B Cells in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy.Newly identified IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) have been shown to play an important role in the suppression of immune responses. Chronic immune activation participates in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) but whether Bregs are involved in its development remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the circulating frequency and function of Bregs in DCM.
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Direct molecular dynamics simulation of nucleation during supersonic expansion of gas to vacuum.We develop a methodology for direct molecular-level simulation of adiabatic expansion of gas through a small orifice to vacuum. The gas gains supersonic speeds, cools down, and nucleates. The proposed approach combines equations of frictionless fluid dynamics with molecular dynamics simulation in an expanding periodic box. There are two key components of the proposed algorithm: (i) a time-reversible integrator tailored to an expanding system, and (ii) an iterative procedure employed to satisfy the condition of steady flow. For a conical nozzle (opening angle 60°) the simulations with argon and water vapor predict cluster sizes in agreement with the experiment. Clusters of irregular shapes observed in the experiment [J. Lengyel et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 112, 113401] are not reproduced. The role of friction, turbulence, and sonic boom originating at sharp nozzle edge is discussed.
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Visible Light-Induced Nickel-Catalyzed Negishi Cross-Coupling. A New Approach to Exogenous Photosensitizer-free Photocatalysis.The merging of photoredox and transition-metal catalysis has become one of the most attractive approaches for carbon-carbon bond formation. The procedure requires the use of two transition organometallic species, one of which acts as a photosensitizer and the other as a cross-coupling catalyst. We report here a new exogenous photosensitizer-free photocatalytic protocol that allows the formation of carbon-carbon bonds by direct acceleration of the well-known nickel-catalyzed Negishi cross-coupling using two naturally abundant metals. This finding will open new avenues in cross-coupling chemistry involving the direct visible light absorption of organometallic catalytic complexes.
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The Breath-Hold Acceleration Index: A New Method to Evaluate Cerebrovascular Reactivity using Transcranial Doppler.Cerebrovascular reactivity (CR) is an ideal biomarker to detect cerebrovascular damage. CR can be quantified by measuring changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) resulting from a CO vasodilatory stimulus, often using the breath-holding index (BHI). In this method, transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound is used to measure CBFV changes in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during a breath-hold maneuver. Despite its convenience, BHI has high variability. Changing body position may contribute to potential variability. It is important to determine if CR differs with body position. The aims of this study were, first, to propose an alternative, more robust index to evaluate CR using a breath-hold maneuver; second, investigate the effect of body position on CR measured with conventional (BHI) and a new proposed index.
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Oleanolic acid induces osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by inhibition of Notch signaling.Oleanolic acid (OA), a naturally occurring triterpenoid, exhibits potential antitumor activity in several tumor cell lines. Although the inhibition effects of OA on proliferation and survival in human cancers have been confirmed, the potential mechanism underlying OA-induced osteosarcoma cell death has not yet been fully elucidated. Our results in this study showed that OA inhibits proliferation and viability of osteosarcoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays revealed that apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells was significantly induced by OA treatment, while this induction was blocked by Jagged1-mediated activation of Notch signaling. Western blot analysis and a mitochondrial membrane potential assay demonstrated that OA functions through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. More importantly, our data revealed that OA treatment interrupted the balance between pro-apoptotic factors and anti-apoptotic factors in osteosarcoma cells by inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. These data suggest that OA induces osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by targeting mitochondria in a Notch signaling-dependent manner. Thus, OA may be a promising drug for adjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The Effect of Gene Flow on Coalescent-based Species-tree Inference.Most current methods for inferring species-level phylogenies under the coa-lescent model assume that no gene flow occurs following speciation. Several studies have examined the impact of gene flow (e.g., Eckert and Carstens (2008); Chung and Ané (2011); Leaché et al. (2014); Solís-Lemus et al. (2016)) and of ancestral population structure (DeGeorgio and Rosenberg, 2016) on the performance of species-level phylogenetic inference, and analytic results have been proven for network models of gene flow (e.g., Solís -Lemus et al. (2016); Zhu et al. (2016)). However, there are few analytic results for a continuous model of gene flow following speciation, despite the development of mathematical tools that could facilitate such study (e.g., Hobolth et al. (2011); Andersen et al. (2014); Tian and Kubatko (2016)). In this paper, we consider a three-taxon isolation-with-migration model that allows gene flow between sister taxa for a brief period following speciation, as well as variation in the effective population sizes across the species tree. We derive the probabilities of each of the three gene tree topologies under this model, and show that for certain choices of the gene flow and effective population size parameters, anomalous gene trees (i.e., gene trees that are discordant with the species tree but that have higher probability than the gene tree concordant with the species tree) exist. We characterize the region of parameter space producing anomalous trees, and show that the probability of the gene tree that is concordant with the species tree can be arbitrarily small. We then show that there is theoretical support for using SVDQuartets with an outgroup to infer the rooted three-taxon species tree in a model of gene flow between sister taxa. We study the performance of SVDQuartets on simulated data and compare it to three other commonly-used methods for species tree inference, ASTRAL, MP-EST, and concatenation. The simulations show that ASTRAL, MP-EST, and concatenation can be statistically inconsistent when gene flow is present, while SVDQuartets performs well, though large sample sizes may be required for certain parameter choices.
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Genomic Displacement and Shift of the Hybrid Zone in the Japanese Fire-Bellied Newt.Hybridizations on a secondary contact zone between 2 diverged lineages can have various evolutionary consequences, including the genetic replacement of one lineage by another. We detected such a case between 2 lineages (the Central and Western lineages) of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster in the Chugoku district of western Japan. We genotyped 269 individuals from 30 localities using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 11 microsatellite loci. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis revealed that the 2 lineages were mostly distributed parapatrically to each other but co-occurred around the contact zone, whereas the microsatellite analyses indicated the presence of a hybrid zone. Geographic cline analysis revealed that the cline width of mtDNA is wider than the width of the microsatellite loci. The migration rate estimation and the NewHybrids analysis revealed that the Central lineage has expanded their range into the range of the hybrid zone, suggesting the possibility of range displacement of the 2 lineages as a consequence of the shift of their hybrid zone. We explored the process of asymmetric gene flow associated with the invasion of the Central lineage to explain this pattern.
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Multimodal Retinal Imaging in Incontinentia Pigmenti Including Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Findings From an Older Cohort With Mild Phenotype.Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare, X-linked dominant disease with potentially severe ocular complications that predominantly affect the peripheral retina. However, little is known about its effects on the macula.
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The immunological effect of Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway after low dose Mifepristone treatment in mice at 14.5 day of pregnancy.The abortifacient Mifepristone (RU486) has proven to be a safe, effective, acceptable option for millions of women seeking abortion during the first and second trimester of pregnancy although its precise mechanism of action is not well understood. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of low dose Mifepristone administration on placental Galectin-9 (Gal-9) expression, as well as its effect on the cell surface expression of Gal-9, TIM-3 and CD107a molecules by different T and NK cell subsets. A model of Mifepristone-induced immunological changes was established in syngeneic pregnant BALB/c mice. RU486-induced alteration in placental Gal-9 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. For immunophenotypic analysis, mid-pregnancy decidual lymphocytes and peripheral mononuclear cells were obtained from Mifepristone treated and control mice at the 14.5 day of gestation. TIM-3 and Gal-9 expression by peripheral and decidual immune cells were examined by flow cytometry. Our results revealed a dramatically decreased intracellular Gal-9 expression in the spongiotrophoblast layer of the haemochorial placenta in Mifepristone treated pregnant mice. Although low dose RU486 treatment did not cause considerable change in the phenotypic distribution of decidual and peripheral immune cells, it altered the Gal-9 and TIM-3 expression by different NK and T cell subsets. In addition, the treatment significantly decreased the CD107a expression by decidual TIM-3+ NK cells, but increased its expression by decidual NKT cell compared to the peripheral counterparts. These findings suggest that low dose Mifepristone administration might induce immune alterations in both progesterone dependent and independent way.
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Construction of hybrid regulated mother-specific yeast promoters for inducible differential gene expression.Engineered promoters with predefined regulation are a key tool for synthetic biology that enable expression on demand and provide the logic for genetic circuits. To expand the availability of synthetic biology tools for S. cerevisiae yeast, we here used hybrid promoter engineering to construct tightly-controlled, externally-inducible promoters that only express in haploid mother cells that have contributed a daughter cell to the population. This is achieved by combining elements from the native HO promoter and from a TetR-repressible synthetic promoter, with the performance of these promoters characterized by both flow cytometry and microfluidics-based fluorescence microscopy. These new engineered promoters are provided as an enabling tool for future synthetic biology applications that seek to exploit differentiation within a yeast population.
1124 related Products with: Construction of hybrid regulated mother-specific yeast promoters for inducible differential gene expression.Gene Expression: Mouse N MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P RABBIT ANTI GSK3 BETA (pS Gene Expression: Rat P45 10x ELISA WASH BUFFER, Pr 10X PHOSPHATE BUFFERED SA PERMANENT AQUEOUS MOUNTIN
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