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#20509693   2010/06/16 Save this To Up

An integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of lactose in milk and dairy products.

An integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of lactose is reported. The bioelectrode design is based on the use of a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrode on which the enzymes beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal), glucose oxidase (GOD), peroxidase (HRP) and the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) are coimmobilized by a dialysis membrane. beta-Gal catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose, and the produced glucose is catalytically oxidized to gluconic acid and H(2)O(2), which is reduced in the presence of HRP. This enzyme reaction is mediated by TTF, and the reduction of TTF(+) at 0.00 V (vs Ag/AgCl) gives rise to an amperometric signal proportional to the lactose concentration. The biosensor exhibits a good repeatability of the measurement carried out with the same biosensor, a good reproducibility of the responses obtained with different biosensors and a useful lifetime of 28 days. A linear calibration plot was obtained for lactose over the 1.5 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-4) M concentration range, with a limit of detection of 4.6 x 10(-7) M. The effect of potential interferents (sucrose, lactulose, fructose, arabinose, maltose, galactose, glucose and uric and ascorbic acids) on the biosensor response was evaluated. Furthermore, the bioelectrode exhibits a suitable performance in flow-injection systems in connection with amperometric detection. The developed biosensor was applied to the determination of lactose in milk and other foodstuffs (chocolate, butter, margarine, yogurt, cheese and mayonnaise), and the results obtained were validated by comparison with those provided by using a commercial enzyme test kit.

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#18693547   2008/08/12 Save this To Up

Preliminary studies on the microbiological characterization of lactic acid bacteria in suero costeño, a Colombian traditional fermented milk product.

Suero costeño is a fermented milk product from the Colombian Atlantic coast, which is produced by the spontaneous acidification of raw milk due to the action of environmental microbes during traditional and semi-industrial processes. Eleven fermentations were carried out in experimental settings replicating traditional conditions and changes in concentration among microbial groups involved during the process (Aerobic Mesophilic bacteria, Yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)). LAB plays an important role in the fermentation process, especially during the final stage (24 hours). In addition, yeasts seem to have an effect on fermentation, showing an increase during the first hours of the process, while Enterobacterial counts decreased during fermentation. Thirty six LAB strains were isolated from commercial samples and thirty two were identified using the API 50 CH kit (BioMCrieux). 41% of the strains identified belonged to the species Lb. plantarum, and 19% were Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei. Sugars fermented by LAB include milk carbohydrates such as D-Lactose, D-Glucose and D-Galactose. Because of their capacity to use other carbohydrates (manose, celobiose, maltose, fructose, ribose, trehalose, salicin, gentiobiose), it would also be possible to use these strains as starter cultures for other fermentations.

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#16161184   2006/05/01 Save this To Up

Simultaneous determination of glucose, 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol and related sugar alcohols in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with benzoic acid derivatization.

A new, simple and sensitive pre-column high-performance chromatographic method for the determination of diabetes marker d-glucose, 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol and related compounds is reported. Sugars (d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, sucrose and arabinose) were derivatized with benzoic acid (BA) at 80 degrees C for 60 min. l-Fucose, fructose, d-lactose, l-rhamnose, arabinose and ascorbic acid were not reacted. Sugar alcohols (xylitol, erythritol, mannitol, sorbitol myo-inositol) were also derivatized with BA at 80 degrees C for 60 min. The fluorescence derivatives were separated on a TSK amide 80 column (4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm, 5 microm) with acetonitrile-50 mm acetate buffer (pH 5.6; 4:96, v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength of beizoic acid derivatives was lambda(ex) 275 nm and lambda(em) 315 nm. The detection limits of sugars were 10-80 microg/mL. The calibration graphs were linear up to 10 mg/mL. The relative standard deviations of 500 microg/mL sugars were 7.0-7.3%. The proposed method was compared with the enzymatic photometric glucose analysis method (Glucose B-Test II Wako). The correlation coefficient was 0.83 (n = 20) and y = 0.82x + 5.91, where y and x are concentrations in microg/mL obtained by the proposed pre-column HPLC and enzyme-photometric method, respectively. The detection limits of sugar alcohols were 100-1000 ng/mL. The calibration graphs were linear to 50 microg/mL and relative standard deviations of 10 microg/mL were 7.2-8.2%. The 1,5-AG data by the proposed method was also compared with the enzymatic photometric 1,5-AG analysis method (Rana AG 1,5-AG determination kit, Nihon Kayaku) and good correlation (r = 0.91, n = 20) was also obtained. The proposed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of d-glucose, 1,5-AG and related sugar alcohols in serum from healthy males.

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#9801196   1999/01/11 Save this To Up

Detection and identification of wild yeasts in lager breweries.

Wild yeasts were detected in 41 out of 101 brewery yeast samples investigated using six different selective principles. Malt extract, yeast extract, glucose, peptone (MYGP) agar supplemented with 195 ppm CuSO4 was found to be the most effective selective principle, detecting wild yeasts in 80% of the contaminated samples. Both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces wild yeasts were detected on this medium. Lysine medium, crystal violet medium and incubation of non-selective media at 37 degrees C detected wild yeasts in 46-56% of the contaminated samples. On using actidione medium, only 20% of the wild yeasts were detected. The combined use of MYGP supplemented with 195 ppm CuSO4 and one of the other selective principles did not improve the recovery of the wild yeasts. The wild yeasts found consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (57%), Pichia spp. (28%) and Candida spp. (15%). Using the API ID 32 C kit, 35 different assimilation profiles were obtained for the 124 wild yeast isolates investigated. All isolates were capable of glucose assimilation, whereas only 79% of the isolates assimilated saccharose, 75% maltose, 70% galactose, 65% raffinose and 65% lactate. Lactose, inositol, rhamnose and glucuronate were not assimilated by any of the isolates. The differences in assimilation pattern did not reflect any differences in recovery by the selective principles investigated. The majority of the wild yeast isolates investigated were capable of growth in wort and beer, indicating their possible role as spoilage organisms. The Sacch. cerevisiae isolates were found to be the most hazardous, with some isolates being capable of extensive growth in bottled beer within seventeen days at ambient temperature.

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