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#28926527   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

Genistein suppresses aerobic glycolysis and induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell death.

Genistein is a natural isoflavone with many health benefits, including antitumour effects. Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) levels and glycolysis in tumour cells are associated with an increased risk of mortality, cancer progression, and resistance to therapy. However, the effect of genistein on HIF-1α and glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear.

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#28926063   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

Methylglyoxal attenuates insulin signaling and downregulates the enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake. SWATH MS analysis, a label-free quantitative mass spectrometric approach, showed altered expression of 99 proteins out of 2404 identified in response to MG treatment. These proteins are mainly involved in stress response, protein folding and proteolysis. Some of the deregulated proteins such as thioredoxin 2, glutathione S transferase, T complex protein 1 subunit β (tcbp1), heat shock protein 90 and E3 ubiquitin ligase were previously reported to be associated with either diabetes or insulin resistance. Interestingly, aminoguanidine (AMG), a potent dicarbonyl scavenger, restored the deleterious effects of MG. For the first time, we report that MG induces downregulation of enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis such as acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase, squalene monooxygenase, and lanosterol synthase. GC MS analysis for sterol metabolites corroborated the proteomic results; MG significantly reduced cholesterol production whereas AMG treatment restored cholesterol production to levels similar to the control. Thus, MG leads to primary defects in insulin signaling and cellular abnormalities at the proteomic and metabolic levels, both of which may contribute to the development of insulin resistance.

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#28923827   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

Mutant CTNNB1 and histological heterogeneity define metabolic subtypes of hepatoblastoma.

Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric liver cancer. Histological evaluation of tumor biopsies is used to distinguish among the different subtypes of hepatoblastoma, with fetal and embryonal representing the two main epithelial components. With frequent CTNNB1 mutations, hepatoblastoma is a Wnt/β-catenin-driven malignancy. Considering that Wnt activation has been associated with tumor metabolic reprogramming, we characterized the metabolic profile of cells from hepatoblastoma and compared it to cells from hepatocellular carcinoma. First, we demonstrated that glucose transporter GLUT3 is a direct TCF4/β-catenin target gene. RNA sequencing enabled to identify molecular and metabolic features specific to hepatoblastoma and revealed that several glycolytic enzymes are overexpressed in embryonal-like compared to fetal-like tumor cells. This led us to implement successfully three biomarkers to distinguish embryonal from fetal components by immunohistochemistry from a large panel of human hepatoblastoma samples. Functional analyses demonstrated that embryonal-like hepatoblastoma cells are highly glycolytic and sensitive to hexokinase-1 silencing. Altogether, our findings reveal a new, metabolic classification of human hepatoblastoma, with potential future implications for patients' diagnosis and treatment.

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#28919251   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth by simultaneous uptake of glucose and maltose.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars. Mal21p was found to be the most resistant transporter to glucose-induced degradation, and strain (HD17) expressing MAL21 grew on a medium containing glucose or maltose, but not on a medium containing both sugars (YPDM). This unexpected growth defect was observed on a medium containing glucose and >0.1% maltose but was not exhibited by a strain that constitutively expressed maltase. The defect depended on intracellular maltose concentration. Although maltose accumulation caused a surge in turgor pressure, addition of sorbitol to YPDM did not increase growth. When strain HD17 was cultivated in a medium containing only maltose, protein synthesis was inhibited at early times but subsequently resumed with reduction in accumulated maltose, but not if the medium was exchanged for YPDM. We conclude that protein synthesis was terminated under the accumulation of maltose, regardless of extracellular osmolarity, and HD17 could not resume growth, because the intracellular concentration of maltose did not decrease due to insufficient synthesis of maltase. Yeast should incorporate maltose after expressing adequate maltase in beer brewing.

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#28915636   2017/09/16 Save this To Up

Role of glucose metabolism related gene GLUT1 in the occurrence and prognosis of colorectal cancer.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females worldwide. However, the functional and causal SNPs for CRC remain to be mined. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), a pivotal rate-limiting element in the transport of glucose in malignancy cells, has been identified to be associated with many cancers. Here, we aim to explore the role of GLUT1 in the occurrence and prognosis of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population. We found that GLUT1 expression levels in CRC tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in the corresponding adjacent normal tissues, and Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that the GLUT1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for CRC (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.33-3.34, P=0.001). For a functional polymorphism of GLUT1 (rs710218), we found that individuals with TT genotype (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.02-2.75, P = 0.041) or AT genotype (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.99, P = 0.012) of rs710218 had a significantly increased risk of CRC compared to those with AA homozygote. These findings strongly suggest that glucose metabolism related gene GLUT1, and its functional SNP, rs710218 might contribute to CRC susceptibility and prognosis, and the exact biological mechanism awaits further research.

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#28915577   2017/09/16 Save this To Up

Vorinostat suppresses hypoxia signaling by modulating nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha.

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a potent class of tumor-suppressive agents traditionally believed to exert their effects through loosening tightly-wound chromatin resulting in de-inhibition of various tumor suppressive genes. Recent literature however has shown altered intratumoral hypoxia signaling with HDACi administration not attributable to changes in chromatin structure. We sought to determine the precise mechanism of HDACi-mediated hypoxia signaling attenuation using vorinostat (SAHA), an FDA-approved class I/IIb/IV HDACi. Through an in-vitro and in-vivo approach utilizing cell lines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), osteosarcoma (OS), and glioblastoma (GBM), we demonstrate that SAHA potently inhibits HIF-a nuclear translocation via direct acetylation of its associated chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). In the presence of SAHA we found elevated levels of acetyl-Hsp90, decreased interaction between acetyl-Hsp90 and HIF-a, decreased nuclear/cytoplasmic HIF-α expression, absent HIF-α association with its nuclear karyopharyin Importin, and markedly decreased HIF-a transcriptional activity. These changes were associated with downregulation of downstream hypoxia molecules such as endothelin 1, erythropoietin, glucose transporter 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Findings were replicated in an in-vivo Hep3B HRE-Luc expressing xenograft, and were associated with significant decreases in xenograft tumor size. Altogether, this study highlights a novel mechanism of action of an important class of chemotherapeutic.

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#28915389   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

Choline prevents fetal overgrowth and normalizes placental fatty acid and glucose metabolism in a mouse model of maternal obesity.

Maternal obesity increases placental transport of macronutrients, resulting in fetal overgrowth and obesity later in life. Choline participates in fatty acid metabolism, serves as a methyl donor and influences growth signaling, which may modify placental macronutrient homeostasis and affect fetal growth. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we assessed the effect of maternal choline supplementation on preventing fetal overgrowth and restoring placental macronutrient homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF, 60% kcal from fat) diet or a normal (NF, 10% kcal from fat) diet with a drinking supply of either 25 mM choline chloride or control purified water, respectively, beginning 4 weeks prior to mating until gestational day 12.5. Fetal and placental weight, metabolites and gene expression were measured. HF feeding significantly (P<.05) increased placental and fetal weight in the HF-control (HFCO) versus NF-control (NFCO) animals, whereas the HF choline-supplemented (HFCS) group effectively normalized placental and fetal weight to the levels of the NFCO group. Compared to HFCO, the HFCS group had lower (P<.05) glucose transporter 1 and fatty acid transport protein 1 expression as well as lower accumulation of glycogen in the placenta. The HFCS group also had lower (P<.05) placental 4E-binding protein 1 and ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation, which are indicators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activation favoring macronutrient anabolism. In summary, our results suggest that maternal choline supplementation prevented fetal overgrowth in obese mice at midgestation and improved biomarkers of placental macronutrient homeostasis.

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#28912573   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

Low-Magnitude High-Frequency Vibration Accelerated the Foot Wound Healing of n5-streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Enhancing Glucose Transporter 4 and Blood Microcirculation.

Delayed wound healing is a Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) complication caused by hyperglycemia, systemic inflammation, and decreased blood microcirculation. Skeletal muscles are also affected by hyperglycemia, resulting in reduced blood flow and glucose uptake. Low Magnitude High Frequency Vibration (LMHFV) has been proven to be beneficial to muscle contractility and blood microcirculation. We hypothesized that LMHFV could accelerate the wound healing of n5-streptozotocin (n5-STZ)-induced DM rats by enhancing muscle activity and blood microcirculation. This study investigated the effects of LMHFV in an open foot wound created on the footpad of n5-STZ-induced DM rats (DM_V), compared with no-treatment DM (DM), non-DM vibration (Ctrl_V) and non-DM control rats (Ctrl) on Days 1, 4, 8 and 13. Results showed that the foot wounds of DM_V and Ctrl_V rats were significantly reduced in size compared to DM and Ctrl rats, respectively, at Day 13. The blood glucose level of DM_V rats was significantly reduced, while the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression and blood microcirculation of DM_V rats were significantly enhanced in comparison to those of DM rats. In conclusion, LMHFV can accelerate the foot wound healing process of n5-STZ rats.

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#28911529   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

An apple a day to prevent cancer formation: Reducing cancer risk with flavonoids.

The purpose of this review is to update and discuss key findings from in vitro and in vivo studies on apple and its biocompounds, with a special focus on its anticancer role. Several studies have proposed that apple and its extracts exhibit a variety of biological functions that may contribute to health benefits including beneficial effects against chronic heart and vascular disorders, respiratory and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanism(s) of various components in apple, as established in previous studies that indicated their growth-inhibitory effects in various cancer cell types. Moreover, an attempt is made to delineate the direction of future studies that could lead to the development of apple components as a potent chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against cancer.

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#28911306   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

Management of blood pressure and heart rate in patients with diabetes mellitus.

In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) there is a clear association between blood pressure (BP) levels and macrovascular and microvascular complications. However, the BP targets that need to be achieved for optimal outcomes remain controversial.

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