Search results for: Glutamate Assay Kit
#28934742 2017/09/21 Save this To Up
Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis.Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway.
Alkaline Phospatase (ALP) Zearalenone Mycotoxins EL Apoptosis antibody array Apoptosis Phospho-Specifi Cancer Apoptosis Phospho- Apoptosis (Human) Antibod Apoptosis (Human) Antibod Liver disease spectrum ti Liver carcinoma and norma Liver carcinoma and norma Liver carcinoma and norma Colon cancer, metastasize
#28712400 2017/07/17 Save this To Up
[Dopamine inhibits glutamate-uptake ability of astrocytes via TAAR1-EAAT2 pathway].Objective To investigate the effect of dopamine (DA) on the glutamate (Glu)-uptake ability of astrocytes, and the role of trace amine-associated receptor 1-excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (TAAR1-EAAT2) signaling pathway in Glu uptake by astrocytes. Methods In the primary cultured astrocytes pretreated with DA, extracellular Glu levels were measured by the Amplex Red glutamic acid assay kit. The levels of TAAR1 and EAAT2 transcriptions were detected by reverse transcription PCR and their protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting. After TAAR1 plasmid and TAAR1 siRNA were separately transfected into the primary astrocytes pretreated by DA, Western blotting was performed to determine the level of EAAT2 and Amplex Red glutamic acid assay kit was used to analyze Glu uptake in primary cultured astrocyte supernatants. Results The expression of EAAT2 in the primary cultured astrocytes significantly decreased in response to DA, and the level of TAAR1 increased. DA significantly enhanced the Glu uptake in primary cultured astrocyte supernatants. After TAAR1 siRNA transfection, EAAT2 expression was upregulated by DA treatment and Glu content in the supernatants was downregulated. On the contrary, after TAAR1 plasmid transfection, EAAT2 expression descended and Glu level ascended in the supernatants. Conclusion DA reduces the Glu-uptake ability of astrocytes through TAAR1-EAAT2 signaling pathway, causes extracellular Glu accumulation, and ultimately destroys the function of astrocytes.
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#28693266 2017/07/11 Save this To Up
Knockdown of GluA2 induces apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through the p53 signaling pathway.α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are important glutamatergic receptors that mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Previous studies have demonstrated that glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 2 (GluA2), one of the four subunits that comprise AMPA receptors, is a potential novel marker for poor prognosis in patients with human lung cancer. However, the mechanisms of GluA2-induced apoptosis, proliferation and migration in lung cancer remain unknown. The present study aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying these effects of GluA2 in human lung cancer by silencing GluA2 in A549 cells. Using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, western blot analysis and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, downregulation of GluA2 was revealed to significantly inhibit the proliferation and significantly promote the apoptosis of A549 cells. Knockdown of GluA2 was also revealed to be associated with increased caspase-3 activity, increased Bcl-2-associated X protein and Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) expression, and decreased expression of B-cell lymphoma-2, p-Bad and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. In addition, GluA2 silencing upregulated cellular tumor antigen p53 (p53)/p21(Cip1/Waf1)/p16(INK4a) protein. In conclusion, these results indicate that the effects of GluA2 in lung cancer are mediated by the caspase-3 and p53/p21(Cip1/Waf1)/p16(INK4a) signaling pathways. Therefore, GluA2 may be a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer.
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#28245898 2017/03/01 Save this To Up
Glutamate Impairs Mitochondria Aerobic Respiration Capacity and Enhances Glycolysis in Cultured Rat Astrocytes.To study the effect of glutamate on metabolism, shifts in glycolysis and lactate release in rat astrocytes.
1518 related Products with: Glutamate Impairs Mitochondria Aerobic Respiration Capacity and Enhances Glycolysis in Cultured Rat Astrocytes.Sterile filtered rat ser Anti VGLUT 1 Rat, polyclo Anti Rat VGLUT 2, Rabbit Insulin 1 (Rat), syntheti Goat Anti-Rat MARCH10, (i Goat Anti-Mouse, Rat DLL1 Goat Anti-Human, Mouse, R Goat Anti-Human, Mouse, R Goat Anti-Rat Connexin 43 Goat Anti-Human, Rat CHRN Rat Anti-Mouse Interleuki Rat Anti-Mouse Interleuki
#28222023 2017/02/21 Save this To Up
Factors associated with increased irisin levels in the type 1 diabetes mellitus.The aim of the present study was to determine the irisin levels in patients with the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to examine the relation of irisin levels with the inflammation and autoimmunity.
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#28065671 2017/01/09 Save this To Up
Glutamine triggers long-lasting increase in striatal network activity in vitro.Accumulation of ammonium and glutamine in blood and brain is a key factor in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) - a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by various cognitive and motor deficits. MRI imaging identified abnormalities notably in the basal ganglia of HE patients, including its major input station, the striatum. While neurotoxic effects of ammonia have been extensively studied, glutamine is primarily perceived as "detoxified" form of ammonia. We applied ammonium and glutamine to striatal and cortical cells from newborn rats cultured on microelectrode arrays. Glutamine, but not ammonium significantly increased spontaneous spike rate with a long-lasting excitation outlasting washout. This effect was more prominent in striatal than in cortical cultures. Calcium imaging revealed that glutamine application caused a rise in intracellular calcium that depended both on system A amino acid transport and activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors. This pointed to downstream glutamate release that was triggered by intracellular glutamine. Using an enzymatic assay kit we confirmed glutamine-provoked glutamate release from striatal cells. Real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2) necessary for synaptic glutamate release in striatal neurons. We conclude that extracellular glutamine is taken up by neurons, triggers synaptic release of glutamate which is then taken up by astrocytes and again converted to glutamine. This feedback-loop causes a sustained long-lasting excitation of network activity. Thus, apart from ammonia also its "detoxified" form glutamine might be responsible for the neuropsychiatric symptoms in HE.
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#28058577 2017/01/06 Save this To Up
Development of an Indirect Dot-PPA-ELISA using glutamate dehydrogenase as a diagnostic antigen for the rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus suis and its application to clinical specimens.Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen causing infections in pigs and humans. Bacterial surface-related proteins are often explored as potential vaccine candidates and diagnostic antigens. In the present study, glutamate dehydrogenase, a highly conserved immunogenic extracellular protein, was used to establish a dot horseradish peroxidase enzyme-linked staphylococcal protein A immunosorbent assay (Dot-PPA-ELISA) for diagnosis of S. suis infection. The antigen-antibody reaction was optimised through checkerboard titration involving serial dilutions, followed by selective blocking tests and evaluations of cross-reaction, repeatability, and stability. Comparative analysis by using a conventional plate ELISA kit showed that the specificity and sensitivity of the Dot-PPA-ELISA were 97.5 and 96.6%, respectively. Furthermore, dynamic changes in the levels of antibody in rabbits immunised with a propolis inactivated vaccine were monitored by Dot-PPA-ELISA. A total seroprevalence of 73.1% in 305 pig serum samples indicated the method's applicability to detect S. suis infection. Cumulatively, the results suggested that Dot-PAA-ELISA is a convenient, rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic method suitable for studying large numbers of samples obtained from clinical and epidemiological studies, thereby helping reduce important economic losses.
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#27863109 2016/11/18 Save this To Up
Diagnostic accuracy of the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody in type 1 diabetes mellitus: Comparison between radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The distributer of the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody assay kit using radioimmunoassay (RIA) recently announced its discontinuation, and proposed an alternative kit using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic values of the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody by RIA and ELISA among type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and control participants.
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#27852676 2016/11/17 Save this To Up
Detection of Clostridium difficile in Feces of Asymptomatic Patients Admitted to the Hospital.Recent evidence shows that patients asymptomatically colonized with Clostridium difficile may contribute to the transmission of C. difficile in health care facilities. Additionally, these patients may have a higher risk of developing C. difficile infection. The aim of this study was to compare a commercially available PCR directed to both toxin A and B (artus C. difficile QS-RGQ kit CE; Qiagen), an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay to glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH ELFA) (Vidas, bioMérieux), and an in-house-developed PCR to tcdB, with (toxigenic) culture of C. difficile as the gold standard to detect asymptomatic colonization. Test performances were evaluated in a collection of 765 stool samples obtained from asymptomatic patients at admission to the hospital. The C. difficile prevalence in this collection was 5.1%, and 3.1% contained toxigenic C. difficile Compared to C. difficile culture, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the C. difficile GDH ELFA were 87.2%, 91.2%, 34.7%, and 99.3%, respectively. Compared with results of toxigenic culture, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the commercially available PCR and the in-house PCR were 95.8%, 93.4%, 31.9%, 99.9%, and 87.5%, 98.8%, 70%, and 99.6%, respectively. We conclude that in a low-prevalence setting of asymptomatically colonized patients, both GDH ELFA and a nucleic acid amplification test can be applied as a first screening test, as they both display a high NPV. However, the low PPV of the tests hinders the use of these assays as stand-alone tests.
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#27821173 2016/11/08 Save this To Up
Anthocyanins abrogate glutamate-induced AMPK activation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in postnatal rat brain.Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, oxidative damage, and neuroinflammation are believed to play an important role in the development of a number of CNS disorders. We recently reported that a high dose of glutamate could induce AMPK-mediated neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (PND7) rat brain. Yet, the mechanism of glutamate-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the postnatal brain is not well understood. Here, we report for the first time the mechanism of glutamate-induced oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection by polyphenolic anthocyanins in PND7.
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