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#28183062   2017/02/09 Save this To Up

Thioredoxin (Trxo1) interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its overexpression affects the growth of tobacco cell culture.

Thioredoxins (Trxs), key components of cellular redox regulation, act by controlling the redox status of many target proteins, and have been shown to play an essential role in cell survival and growth. The presence of a Trx system in the nucleus has received little attention in plants, and the nuclear targets of plant Trxs have not been conclusively identified. Thus, very little is known about the function of Trxs in this cellular compartment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of PsTrxo1 and confirmed its presence in mitochondria and, interestingly, in the nucleus under standard growth conditions. In investigating the nuclear function of PsTrxo1 we identified proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a PsTrxo1 target by means of affinity chromatography techniques using purified nuclei from pea leaves. Such protein-protein interaction was corroborated by dot-blot and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, which showed that both proteins interact in the nucleus. Moreover, PsTrxo1 showed disulfide reductase activity on previously oxidized recombinant PCNA protein. In parallel, we studied the effects of PsTrxo1 overexpression on Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cell cultures. Microscopy and flow-cytometry analysis showed that PsTrxo1 overexpression increases the rate of cell proliferation in the transformed lines, with a higher percentage of the S phase of the cell cycle at the beginning of the cell culture (days 1 and 3) and at the G2/M phase after longer times of culture (day 9), coinciding with an upregulation of PCNA protein. Furthermore, in PsTrxo1 overexpressed cells there is a decrease in the total cellular glutathione content but maintained nuclear GSH accumulation, especially at the end of the culture, which is accompanied by a higher mitotic index, unlike non-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that Trxo1 is involved in the cell cycle progression of TBY-2 cultures, possibly through its link with cellular PCNA and glutathione.

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#26873487   2016/08/26 Save this To Up

Correlation of TGF-β1 and oxidative stress in the blood of patients with melanoma: a clue to understanding melanoma progression?

TGF-β1 and oxidative stress are involved in cancer progression, but in melanoma, their role is still controversial. Our aim was to correlate plasma TGF-β1 levels and systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with melanoma, with or without disease metastasis, to understand their participation in melanoma progression. Thirty patients were recruited for melanoma surveillance, together with 30 healthy volunteers. Patients were divided into two groups: Non-metastasis, comprising patients with tumor removal and no metastatic episode for 3 years; and Metastasis, comprising patients with a metastatic episode. The plasmatic cytokines TGF-β1, IL-1 β, and TNF-α were analyzed by ELISA. For oxidative stress, the following assays were performed: malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels, total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and thiol in plasma, and lipid peroxidation, SOD and catalase activity and GSH in erythrocytes. Patients with a metastatic episode had less circulating TGF-β1 and increased TRAP, thiol, AOPP and lipid peroxidation levels. MDA was increased in both melanoma groups, while catalase, GSH, and IL-1β was decreased in Non-metastasis patients. Significant negative correlations were observed between TGF-β1 levels and systemic MDA, and TGF-β1 levels and systemic AOPP, while a positive correlation was observed between TGF-β1 levels and erythrocyte GSH. Lower levels of TGF-β1 were related to increased oxidative stress in Metastasis patients, reinforcing new evidence that in melanoma TGF-β1 acts as a tumor suppressor, inhibiting tumor relapse. These findings provide new knowledge concerning this cancer pathophysiology, extending the possibilities of investigating new therapies based on this evidence.

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#26461392   2015/10/14 Save this To Up

Biomarkers research in neuromuscular disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) (ORPHA166) is the most frequent hereditary neuropathy. CMT is a heterogeneous group of disorders which, despite some variability in their clinical features, share the same general phenotype, usually characterized by wasting and weakness of distal limb muscles, decreased to absent deep tendon reflexes, distal sensory loss, and frequent skeletal deformities. Despite the clinical and molecular description of this disease in the last 20 years, there is no effective drug or advanced therapy available. Here we have pretend the identification of metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers in plasmas from patients with duplication at PMP22 gene, the most frequent mutation causing CMT, and clinically characterized as CMT1A. The samples were collected in the neuropathy units from "La Fe" Hospital of Valencia, "Bellvitge" Hospital of Barcelona, "La Paz" Hospital of Madrid, and "Virgen del Rocío" Hospital of Sevilla. The metabolic biomarkers research was performed using 2D-DIGE analysis (Typhoon TRIO, GE) and DeCyder software (GE). Protein identification was made by mass spectrometry by MALDI-TOF-TOF (ABSciex) and liquid Chromatography analysis (ABSciex). The oxidative stress biomarkers research consisted in carbonylated proteins analysis by reaction with DNPH and Dot-blot. Total antioxidant capacity and GSSG/GSH ratio were analyzed with Antioxidant Assay kit (Cayman) and Glutathione Fluorescent detection Kit (Arbor Assays), respectively. Finally now we are performing the MDA levels by HPLC-UV. We found 8, 13 and 36 proteins with differential expression in mild, moderate and severely affected patients, respectively compared with their own matched controls. Also we found differences on oxidative stress parameters between de different groups analyzed. Our results suggest differences in the oxidative stress profile between the studied phenotypes in CMT1A patients.

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#26375860   2015/09/17 Save this To Up

Clinical Research Abstracts of the British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2015.

Colic remains a life-threatening condition in the horse. Ischaemia and reperfusion following correction of small intestinal strangulation may produce oxidative stress. The ability to withstand oxidative stress depends on antioxidant levels and may be linked to horse survival.

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#25800266   2015/04/23 Save this To Up

Cytotoxicity of chronic exposure to 4 cigarette smoke condensates in 2 cell lines.

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death. The cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke without the vapor phase, has mostly been tested in short-term in vitro studies lasting from a few hours to a few days. Here, we assessed the toxicity of CSCs from 2 reference cigarettes, 3R4F and CM6, using a primary human small airway epithelial (PSAE) cell line by quantifying adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), total glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH] + oxidized glutathione [GSSG]), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release over the course of 28 days. The CSCs, 0.3 to 10 μg/mL, promoted cell proliferation at 120 hours of exposure, but demonstrated cytotoxicity at days 14 and 28. Interestingly, CSCs, 0.3 to 3 μg/mL, showed a cell death effect at day 14 but induced cell proliferation at day 28. Consistently, transformation associated with morphological changes began by day 14 and the transformed cells grew dramatically at day 28. The LDH assay appeared to be sensitive for assessing early cell damage, whereas the ATP, MTS, and GSH assays were more suitable for determining later stage CSCs-induced cytotoxicity. The ATP assay showed greater sensitivity than the MTS and GSH assays. We also assessed the toxicity of CSCs in an human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized Barrett esophagus cell line (CP-C). The CP-C cells demonstrated dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity over the course of 28 days but displayed higher resistance to CSCs than PSAE cells. This study demonstrates that CSCs cause cytotoxicity and induce transformation related to cell resistance and cell invasion properties.

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#23583222   2013/06/03 Save this To Up

Glutathione: a redox signature in monitoring EPI-743 therapy in children with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

Genetically defined Leigh syndrome (LS) is a rare, fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects children. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has clearly been associated with oxidative stress, few studies have specifically examined Leigh syndrome patients' blood glutathione levels. In this study, we analyzed the balance between oxidized and reduced glutathione in lymphocytes of 10 patients with genetically confirmed LS and monitored the effects of glutathione status following 6 months of treatment with EPI-743, a novel redox therapeutic.

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#22015589   2011/11/29 Save this To Up

The genotoxic potential of methapyrilene using the alkaline Comet assay in vitro and in vivo.

The genotoxicity of methapyrilne (MP) has been evaluated in a number of assays since it was found to be a rat hepatocarcinogen with subsequent withdrawal as an over-the-counter antihistamine. Whilst it has not been classified as a genotoxin, there are reports of positive findings from mammalian cell gene mutation and transformation assays. To investigate further the genotoxic potential of MP, the alkaline Comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage both in primary hepatocytes in culture and in vivo in the rat. To confirm bioactivation was required to induce the hepatotoxic mechanism, aminobenzotriazole, a broad spectrum cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitor was used as a pre-treatment. The levels of glutathione and glutathione disulfide were determined in both hepatocytes in culture and in the liver following in vivo exposure. MP showed significant increases in DNA damage in freshly isolated male rat hepatocyte suspensions that could be significantly reduced by pre-incubation of aminobenzotriazole (ABT). DNA damage showed a marked sex difference, with male hepatocytes being more susceptible, and showing a concurrent depletion of glutathione (GSH) compared with female hepatocytes. Modulation of the GSH levels by diethylmaleate and γ-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester, elevated and reduced the levels of DNA damage, respectively. In the in vivo Comet assay, there was no evidence of DNA damage following MP (150mg/kg p.o) treatment for three consecutive days, although histological and liver enzyme changes were seen. Total protein GSH content was elevated in MP-treated animals and superoxide dismutase levels were increased specifically in periportal regions. Taken together, these data support the potential for MP to induce oxidative stress. The differences in DNA damage detected by the Comet assay in vitro, and in rat liver in vivo, could be attributed to differences in metabolism and response to oxidant insult or the inability of the assay to discriminate damage in a small number of individual cells in the whole liver.

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#21165344   2010/12/30 Save this To Up

Functional characteristic of PC12 cells with reduced microsomal glutathione transferase 1.

Microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1) possesses glutathione transferase and peroxidase activities and is active in biotransformation of xenobiotics and in defense against oxidative stress. To assess MGST1 role in the development and functioning of PC12 cells, we constructed a cell line with reduced MGST1 (PC12_M). Real-time PCR and immunoblot assays showed MGST1 expression lowered to 60 % and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated an altered concentration and distribution of the enzyme. PC12_M cells revealed a larger tendency to grow in clusters, weaker adhesion, irregular shape of bodies, short neurite outgrowth and higher percentage of necrotic cells (34 %). The total GSTs activity determined with non-specific substrate CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) decreased by 15-20 %, whereas that with DCNB (2,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene), a substrate more specific for cytosolic GSTs, was similar to the one in control cells. This suggests that reduction of MGST1 cannot be compensated by other glutathione transferases. In PC12_M cells the total glutathione content was higher by 15-20 %, whereas the GSSG/GSH ratio was lower than in control cells. Moreover, the laminin-dependent migration rate was much faster in control cells than in PC12_M, suggesting some alterations in the metastatic potential of the line with suppressed MGST1. The amount of MAP kinases (p38, JNK, ERK1/2) was elevated in PC12_M cells but their phosphorylation level declined. Microarray analysis showed changed expression of several genes, which may be linked with differentiation and necrosis of PC12_M cells. Our data suggest that MGST1 could be an important regulator of PC12 cells development and might have significant effects on cell growth and proliferation, probably through altered expression of genes with different biological function.

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#20103130   2010/01/27 Save this To Up

Spectrofluorimetric determination of total free thiols based on formation of complexes of Ce(III) with disulfide bonds.

A simple, rapid, and sensitive determination of total free thiol groups in biological samples using cerium (IV) as a fluorescence probe is reported. The protocol is based on the oxidation of thiols by Ce(IV) and the formation the Ce(III) disulfide complex, which gives a fluorescence enhancement of Ce(III) at 352 nm. Using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine as model compounds, incubation with Ce(IV) at 25 degrees C for 6 min results in fluorescence, whose intensity is proportional to the thiol concentration in the range of 1.00-160 nM. The detection limits for GSH and cysteine are 0.05 and 0.08 nM, respectively. Other common metal ions and amino acids have little interference to the thiol detection. Cu(II) was used as a fluorescence quencher to eliminate potential interference from tryptophan. The method has been successfully applied to assays of free thiol contents in pig liver tissue samples, with a RSD lower than 2.5% and recovery between 100.6% and 102.3%.

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#19524568   2009/09/14 Save this To Up

Acute energy reduction induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and activates p53 in retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5).

The energy reduction-induced death of retinal ganglion cells is associated with many ophthalmic diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptosis pathway of retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) following acute ATP reduction by using glucose deprivation (GD). RGC-5 cells were cultured in glucose-free or normal DMEM for 3 days. The changes in intracellular ATP and cell viability were monitored by ATP assay and MTT assay. APOPercentage and in situ TUNEL assays were used to determine the cell death pattern. The involvement of oxidative stress was assessed by measuring intracellular ROS generation, the HO-1 expression, the effect of antioxidants, and the ratio of GSSG to total GSH. The activation of p53 and apoptosis markers was evaluated by Western blotting. We found that glucose deprivation caused an acute decline of intracellular ATP level, concomitantly decreasing cell viability. The cell death exhibited typical features indicative of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation. Oxidative stress was involved in the cell death process; an antioxidant significantly protected the cells against glucose deprivation. p53 and apoptosis markers, caspase-3 and PARP-1 were activated after RGC-5 cells were cultured in glucose-free media for 32 h. Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, was sufficient to prevent apoptosis. These results suggest that acute energy reduction induced by glucose deprivation triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis and activates p53. Blocking the critical steps in this cell death pathway may have therapeutic effects, rescuing the retinal ganglion cells from damages associated with acute energy reduction.

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