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#28903885   2017/09/14 Save this To Up

The Effects of Baicalin on Myoglobinuric Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

Myoglobinuric acute kidney injury (MAKI) is a uremic syndrome which develops due to damage of skeletal muscle. It was demonstrated that free radicals and nitric oxide play an important role in pathogenesis of MAKI. Baicalin has multiple bioactivities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, as it is a potent free radical scavenger.

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#28900399   2017/09/13 Save this To Up

Acacetin from Traditionally Used Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir. Suppressed Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Attenuated Lipid Accumulation in Obese Mice.

Acacetin, a flavone that can be isolated from the Saussurea involucrata plant, has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties that ameliorate airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice. This study investigated whether acacetin has anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes and macrophages. It also investigated whether acacetin ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mice. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with acacetin. The glycerol levels in the culture medium were measured, and the expression of proteins and genes involved in adipogenesis and lipolysis were assayed by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Inflammatory cytokine signaling pathway activity was assessed in macrophages that were treated with acacetin and cultured with differentiated medium from 3T3-L1 cells. Intraperitoneal injections of acacetin were administered to HFD-induced obese mice twice a week for 10 weeks. Acacetin significantly increased the levels of glycerol in the culture medium and significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Acacetin reduced the expression of adipogenesis-related transcription factors, including the expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein; it also increased sirtuin 1 expression and AMPK phosphorylation in adipocytes. In macrophages cultured with differentiated media from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, acacetin reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators and the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB pathways. In obese mice, acacetin reduced both body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight. These results demonstrate that acacetin inhibited adipogenesis in adipocytes and in obese mice. Acacetin also reduced the inflammatory response of macrophages that were stimulated with differentiated media from 3T3-L1 cells.

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#28870477   2017/09/05 Save this To Up

A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet.

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#28852571   2017/08/30 Save this To Up

Glycerol kinase-like proteins cooperate with Pld6 in regulating sperm mitochondrial sheath formation and male fertility.

Spermatids undergo the final steps of maturation during spermiogenesis, a process that necessitates extensive rearrangement of organelles such as the mitochondria. Male infertility has been linked to mitochondrial disorder, for example, hypospermatogenesis and asthenozoospermia. However, the mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial dynamics during spermiogenesis remain largely unknown. We found the glycerol kinase (Gyk)-like proteins glycerol kinase-like 1 (Gykl1) and glycerol kinase 2 (Gk2) were specifically localized to the mitochondria in spermatids. Male mice deficient in either Gykl1 or Gk2 were infertile due to dysfunctional spermatozoa, which exhibited unregulated ATP production, disordered mitochondrial sheath formation, abnormal mitochondrial morphology, and defective sperm tail. We demonstrated that the unique C-terminal sequences found in Gykl1 and Gk2 mediated their targeting to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore, both Gykl1 and Gk2 could interact with Pld6 (MitoPLD) and induce Pld6 and phosphatidic acid (PA)-dependent mitochondrial clustering in cells. Taken together, our study has revealed previously unsuspected functions of Gyk-like proteins in spermiogenesis, providing new insight into the potential mechanisms that lead to spermatozoa dysfunction and male infertility.

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#28836571   2017/08/24 Save this To Up

Pharmacological Inhibition of Macrophage Toll-like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor-kappa B Alleviates Rhabdomyolysis-induced Acute Kidney Injury.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common and life-threatening systemic complication of rhabdomyolysis. Inflammation plays an important role in the development of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. This study aimed to investigate the kidney model of AKI caused by rhabdomyolysis to verify the role of macrophage Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B (TLR4/NF-κB) signaling pathway.

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#28812308   2017/08/16 Save this To Up

Transcriptional regulation of the protein kinase a subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentative growth.

Yeast cells can adapt their growth in response to the nutritional environment. Glucose is the favourite carbon source of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which prefers a fermentative metabolism despite the presence of oxygen. When glucose is consumed, the cell switches to the aerobic metabolism of ethanol, during the so-called diauxic shift. The difference between fermentative and aerobic growth is in part mediated by a regulatory mechanism called glucose repression. During glucose derepression a profound gene transcriptional reprogramming occurs and genes involved in the utilization of alternative carbon sources are expressed. Protein kinase A (PKA) controls different physiological responses following the increment of cAMP as a consequence of a particular stimulus. cAMP-PKA is one of the major pathways involved in the transduction of glucose signalling. In this work the regulation of the promoters of the PKA subunits during respiratory and fermentative metabolism are studied. It is demonstrated that all these promoters are upregulated in the presence of glycerol as carbon source through the Snf1/Cat8 pathway. However, in the presence of glucose as carbon source, the regulation of each PKA promoter subunits is different and only TPK1 is repressed by the complex Hxk2/Mig1 in the presence of active Snf1. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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#28810867   2017/08/16 Save this To Up

New inducible promoter for gene expression and synthetic biology in Yarrowia lipolytica.

The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is increasingly used as alternative cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins. At present, several promoters with different strengths have been developed based either on the constitutive pTEF promoter or on oleic acid inducible promoters such as pPOX2 and pLIP2. Although these promoters are highly efficient, there is still a lack of versatile inducible promoters for gene expression in Y. lipolytica.

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#28778484   2017/08/05 Save this To Up

Glycerol kinase of African trypanosomes possesses an intrinsic phosphatase activity.

In general, glycerol kinases (GKs) are transferases that catalyze phospho group transfer from ATP to glycerol, and the mechanism was suggested to be random bi-bi. The reverse reaction i.e. phospho transfer from glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) to ADP is only physiologically feasible by the African trypanosome GK. In contrast to other GKs the mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense glycerol kinase (TbgGK) was shown to be in an ordered fashion, and proceeding via autophosphorylation. From the unique reaction mechanism of TbgGK, we envisaged its potential to possess phosphatase activity in addition to being a kinase.

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#28774370   2017/08/04 Save this To Up

[Recurrent anorexia and pigmentation of skin for more than two months in an infant].

A 2-month-old boy presented with adrenal insufficiency, impaired liver function, hypertriglyceridemia, significantly elevated creatine kinase and electrolyte disturbance. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis test showed a pathogenic 8.7 Mb deletion in the short arm of chromosome X (Xp21.3 - p21.1) and confirmed the diagnosis of complex glycerol kinase deficiency (cGKD). He was treated with hydrocortisone, coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine and was subsequently followed up for 4 years. His serum cortisol levels returned to normal one week later after treatment, but the serum creatine kinase, triglyceride and aminotransferase levels were progressively increased along with mental retardation and decreased muscular strength. cGKD is also named as Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome. The clinical manifestations of this disease include hypertriglyceridemia, congenital adrenal hypoplasia (AHC), Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and mental retardation. This case highlights the necessity to screen the serum triglyceride and creatine kinase levels in infants with suspected adrenal insufficiency.

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#28759390   2017/07/31 Save this To Up

Cholestasis and Hepatic Iron Deposition in an Infant With Complex Glycerol Kinase Deficiency.

We present a 6-week-old male infant with persistent hyperbilirubinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated creatine kinase levels, and transaminitis since the second week of life. When he developed hyperkalemia, clinical suspicion was raised for adrenal insufficiency despite hemodynamic stability. A full endocrine workup revealed nearly absent adrenocorticotropic hormone. Coupled with his persistent hypertriglyceridemia (peak of 811 mg/dL) and elevated creatine kinase levels (>20 000 U/L), his corticotropin level lead to a clinical diagnosis of complex glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD), also known as Xp21 deletion syndrome. This complex disorder encompasses the phenotype of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, GKD, and congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to the deletion of 3 contiguous genetic loci on the X chromosome. Our case exemplifies the presentation of this disorder and highlights the important lesson of distinguishing between adrenal hypoplasia congenita and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, as well as the sometimes subtle presentation of adrenal insufficiency. To our knowledge, it is also the first reported case of complex GKD deficiency with the additional finding of hepatic iron deposition, which may indicate a potential area for exploration regarding the pathogenesis of liver injury and cholestasis seen in cortisol-related endocrinopathies.

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