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High seroprevalence of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in sheep and goats across nine government farms in the Pakistani Punjab.

Seroprevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis infections in animals and humans is not established in Pakistan. There are only a few reports on the prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia spp. and infections in small ruminants, however, the role of sheep and goats in the transmission of pathogenic Yersinia remains unclear.

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First report on seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats in North Lebanon.

Toxoplasmosis is of dual importance in both public and veterinary health due to the respective risk of transplacental transmission in primo-infected pregnant women and economic losses caused by abortions in mammals. One of the main routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission to humans is the consumption of raw or undercooked meats containing parasitic cysts. Here, we performed the first epidemiological study to determine the seroprevalence and the risk factors of toxoplasmosis in livestock in Lebanon.

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Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Mycoplasma agalactiae and investigation of coinfection with the caprine lentivirus in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Contagious agalactia is a disease caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae that leads to a reduction or complete stop of milk production. Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an infectious disease caused by a lentivirus of the Retroviridae family, member of the small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) group. Although these diseases are caused by distinct pathogens, the clinical presentation is similar. Hence, this study aimed to perform a serological investigation, as well as to assess correlation between both diseases and risk factors associated in two mesoregions of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for contagious agalactia and western blot for CAE. A total of 538 serum samples were used in this study that were collected from goats and sorted from a blood bank of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. Seroprevalence of M. agalactiae in flocks from Rio Grande do Norte was 7.8% (42/538). In both regions that were investigated, 25.9% (14/54) of farms had positive animals. CAE results revealed that 3.9% (21/538) of animals and 42.6% (23/54) of farms had this disease. Concerning risk factors, only sex and animal category presented significant relevance (P < 0.05) for contagious agalactia, in which females presented higher frequency of seropositive individuals (10.1%; 39/387). In the animal category, 4.3% (14/326) and 11.1% (36/323) of female breeders were positive for CAE and contagious agalactia, respectively, and significance was identified only in the latter (P < 0.05). In conclusion, there was no correlation between the investigated diseases, considering that no animal demonstrated antibodies for both pathogens.

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A meta-analysis of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence, genotypes and risk factors among food animals in West African countries from public health perspectives.

Toxoplasma gondii has been incriminated as an important opportunistic zoonotic protozoan parasite in food animals. A West African meta-analysis was conducted to assess the seroprevalence, genotypes and risk factors of T. gondii infection in food animals. Databases were searched electronically, considering T. gondii infection in cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and chickens. These were conducted to estimate overall pooled seroprevalence, confidence intervals at 95 % (CI) and heterogeneity using quality effects model. Qualitative data on risk factors to determine effects on human populace and possible control strategies were evaluated. Pooled seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies for food animals was 25.5 % (18.9-32.8); and for each animal namely cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens were 16.3, 29.1, 18.1, 35.9 and 36.0 %, respectively. Most studied food animals were observed in Nigeria, while the highest seroprevalence was observed in examined goats from Republic of Benin, the lowest was in cattle from the same country. Substantial variability (Q = 2759.5; I = 98.3; Qi = 17.3; df = 48) among studies and lack of publication bias (LFK index = -0.08) in overall assessment was observed. In spite of the high seroprevalence in food animals, awareness and research activities in most endemic West African countries is low. Failure to associate the common risk factors have limited the reliable estimation of T. gondii infection. Therefore, more efforts are needed in awareness campaign, management practises, careful treatment of contaminated environment with cat faeces, among other measures to assist in the prevention of T. gondii in food animals.

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Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cattle, sheep, goats and pigs from São Tomé and Príncipe.

Despite the global importance of the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, little is known regarding its infection in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP). This is the first report of antibodies to T. gondii in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs from the DRSTP. Antibodies were assessed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off titer of 100 for cattle and 20 for sheep, goats and pigs. The present study revealed an overall seroprevalence of 55.8%; 27.1% in 48 cattle, 68.4% in 98 sheep, 70.1% in 97 goats and 43.7% in 103 pigs. The south geographical area for cattle, the central area for sheep, and adult age and living in the central region for goats were found to be risk factors for seropositivity to T. gondii. These results support the scenario of a considerable presence of sporulated oocysts as well as of infected intermediate hosts in the local environment. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat should be considered as an important potential source of infection for animals and humans in the DRSTP.

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Haemonchus contortus transthyretin domain - containing protein (HcTTR): A promising vaccine candidate against Haemonchus contortus infection.

Haemonchus contortus transthyretin domain-containing protein (HcTTR) with 136 amino acids belongs to a transthyretin-like (TTL) family member. In our previous study, it was reported that HcTTR was a novel antagonist of the goat cytokine Interleukin 4 (IL-4), and was involved in the regulation of host immune responses, implying that it might be applied for therapeutic strategies or vaccine development against the infection of H. contortus. Thus, the protective capacities of HcTTR against H. contortus infections via active and passive immunization trials were examined. For the passive protection trials, H. contortus-infected goats were intravenously immunized twice with 5 mg of total IgG containing anti-rHcTTR goat polyclonal antibodies. The results showed that the significant rates of reduction in egg shedding and worm burden was 58.12% and 64.61%, respectively, as compared with the positive control group. For the active protection trials, local goats were vaccinated twice with 500 μg of recombinant HcTTR to generate antigen-specific circulating antibodies, resulting in 63.7% reduction in eggs shedding and 66.4% reduction in worm burdens after H. contortus challenge. In both passive and active trials, the immunized goats displayed higher mucosal IgA levels and less anaemic compared to the challenged positive controls. Pen trials indicated that HcTTR generated partial immune protective effects against H. contortus challenge and it could be a promising vaccine candidate for development of effective strategy to control H. contortus.

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Serological evidence of infection in slaughtered sheep and goats at Kumasi Abattoir, Ghana.

Q fever, caused by , is an important zoonosis worldwide. Q fever is documented in many parts of the world; however, information on the disease in Ghana is scanty. This study was therefore conducted to provide evidence of exposure of sheep and goats slaughtered at the Kumasi Abattoir to . A total of 350 serum samples collected from 175 sheep and 175 goats were analyzed for the presence of C. antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit (ID Vet). Results of the study established a seroprevalence of 28.57% in goats, 16.57% in sheep and an overall seroprevalence of 22.29% in sheep and goats; 20.57% for male sheep, 23.86% for female sheep, 26.44% for male goats and 30.68% for female goats. Results showed that goats are more at risk to the infection than sheep however sex is not a risk factor. This study confirms the existence of Q fever in sheep and goats in Ghana hence, the disease should be considered as a public health risk to workers at the abattoir and other stakeholders in the sheep and goat production chain.

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Development of an immunoassay using recombinant outer membrane protein A and flagellin for diagnosis of goats with melioidosis.

Among domestic animals, melioidosis is one of the most common diseases reported in goat, sheep, and swine. To evaluate the specific antibodies in goats with melioidosis, we developed a serology test using recombinant outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and flagellin (FliC) of Burkholderia pseudomallei as antigens. DNA corresponding to each antigen was cloned into a pET32a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. Essentially, the recombinant OmpA and FliC were expressed in a soluble form that could be isolated with 95% homogeneity. Both recombinants could be recognized by rabbit antibodies prepared against heat-inactivated B. pseudomallei (1:1,000) on a Western blot. Subsequently, we demonstrated that both recombinants could capture the antibodies present in goat with naturally occurring melioidosis (optimized titer 1:40) while not cross-reacting with the serum samples of goats naturally infected by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis or Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, an ELISA using 20 goat serum samples without melioidosis and 10 goat serum samples with melioidosis demonstrated that the infected group has significantly higher antibody titer levels than the normal group (P<0.001) when using either OmpA or FliC as an antigen. However, the sensitivity (100%) of the assay using OmpA was superior to that (90%) from using FliC. Serological tests that are commonly used often rely on antigens from crude cell extracts, which pose risks for laboratory-acquired infections and inconsistency in their preparation; however, use of recombinant OmpA is safe; it can potentially be used as a reagent in testing for goat melioidosis.

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