Search results for: Goat Anti Rabbit IgG Fc, 10 mg
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Measurement of the localised plasmon penetration depth for gold nanoparticles using a non-invasive bio-stacking method.We have used the formation of a bio-probe stack with up to 24 steps on gold nanoparticle and continuous gold surfaces to characterize the penetration depth of the plasmon field in a non-invasive manner by only involving biomolecules from standard bio-assays. An alternating anti-goat rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG bio-probe stack is polymerized on protein A/G functionalized gold surfaces. The change in plasmon excitation angle or light scattering decreases exponentially with each stacking step although the bio-integrity of the antibody epitope is maintained. The exponential decay in the derived kinetic parameters is attributed to the change in the penetration depth and the step size is calibrated using a commercial continuous gold surface plasmon resonance surface to be 17.5 ± 0.8 nm, consistent with the expected dimension of the antibody. The penetration depth of the gold spherical nanoparticles of diameter 90 ± 13 nm is determined to be 93 ± 10 nm.
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The effects of hitchhiker antigens co-eluting with affinity-purified research antibodies.The popularity of Protein G for the purification of antibodies has given rise to an entire industry that supplies scientists with research grade immunoreagents; however, many times the supplied product is contaminated with antigens bound to the antibody's complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). These "hitchhikers" are a category of host cell proteins that are elusive to detect due to their interaction with the antibody in the final product and yet their impact on an experiment or an entire field of study can be far reaching. In an earlier work, the role of hitchhikers on a human anti-histone antibody destined for clinical usage was explored and a stringent purification scheme developed. Here we use a murine monoclonal, which reflects the type of commercial antibody usually purchased for research. We evaluate three purification schemes: a traditional approach using a one-step, low pH elution buffer (pH 2.5); a gentler approach using a pH gradient elution scheme (pH 7 down to pH 2.5); and finally, a more stringent purification patterned on our earlier published method that uses a quaternary amine guard column and a high salt wash during antibody immobilization on the Protein G. We stress that the stringent purification incorporates the pH gradient scheme and is gentler than the low-pH approach. The resulting product from all three purifications is directly compared for binding potency, histone content (using an ELISA based assay) and residual DNA (using quantitative PCR). The results demonstrate that the first two methods are inadequate for hitchhiker removal. The traditional one-step, low pH approach produces a single elution peak containing histone contaminated antibody with picogram quantities of residual DNA, however, the trailing end of the same peak is loaded with antibody complexed to nanogram amounts of DNA, in some cases, over 100 ng. The pH gradient approach provided antibodies accompanied by only picograms of residual DNA and, on average, 1 out of every 10-20 CDRs occupied by a histone antigen. The more stringent approach, using the salt wash prior to elution with the pH gradient, has an average of 1 out of every 75 CDRs contaminated with a histone while the majority of the residual DNA is captured by the quaternary amine column placed in front of the Protein G. The consequences of these contaminants is illustrated by showing how they manifest themselves in unusual antibody potency values ranging from 558% for antibody bound to histone hitchhikers down to 15% for antibody contaminated with DNA hitchhikers. Those samples purified by the recommended stringent approach show potency values between 90 and 101%. Most importantly, we repeatedly demonstrate in a simulated chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay the ability to precipitate clean plasmid DNA with histone contaminated antibody that had been purified using the traditional one-step, low pH elution approach. Expectedly, those antibodies stringently purified and showing 100% binding potency were unable to precipitate DNA in the absence of histone hitchhikers.
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S-layer-mediated display of the immunoglobulin G-binding domain of streptococcal protein G on the surface of Caulobacter crescentus: development of an immunoactive reagent.The immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding streptococcal protein G is often used for immunoprecipitation or immunoadsorption-based assays, as it exhibits binding to a broader spectrum of host species IgG and IgG subclasses than the alternative, Staphylococcus aureus protein A. Caulobacter crescentus produces a hexagonally arranged paracrystalline protein surface layer (S-layer) composed of a single secreted protein, RsaA, that is notably tolerant of heterologous peptide insertions while maintaining the surface-attached crystalline character. Here, a protein G IgG-binding domain, GB1, was expressed as an insertion into full-length RsaA on the cell surface to produce densely packed immunoreactive particles. GB1 insertions at five separate sites were expressed, and all bound rabbit and goat IgG, but expression levels were reduced compared to those of wild-type RsaA and poor binding to mouse IgG was noted. To remedy this, we used the 20-amino-acid Muc1 peptide derived from human mucins as a spacer, since insertions of multiple tandem repeats were well tolerated for RsaA secretion and assembly. This strategy worked remarkably well, and recombinant RsaA proteins, containing up to three GB1 domains, surrounded by Muc1 peptides, not only were secreted and assembled but did so at wild-type levels. The ability to bind IgG (including mouse IgG) increased as GB1 units were added, and those with three GB1 domains bound twice as much rabbit IgG per cell as S. aureus cells (Pansorbin). The ability of recombinant protein G-Caulobacter cells to function as immunoactive reagents was assessed in an immunoprecipitation assay using a FLAG-tagged protein and anti-FLAG mouse monoclonal antibody; their performance was comparable to that of protein G-Sepharose beads. This work demonstrates the potential for using cells expressing recombinant RsaA/GB1 in immunoassays, especially considering that protein G-Caulobacter cells are more cost-effective than protein G beads and exhibit a broader species and IgG isotype binding range than protein A.
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Simple and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ivermectin.A sensitive and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of the concentration of ivermectin (IVM) in biological fluids was developed. A conjugate of IVM on bovine serum albumin and poly-L-lysine was used to produce antibodies in rabbits and served as a solid-phase marker for titration of antibodies, respectively. The competitive ELISA was conducted by simultaneously incubating IVM and IVM-biotin conjugate with anti-IVM antiserum over goat anti-rabbit IgG (Fc) and then determining the amount of bound IVM-biotin with avidin-peroxidase conjugate as a tracer. The coefficient of variation for the assay was less than 10% in the range of 0.3-10 ng/ml. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/ml. The cross-reactivities of anti-IVM antiserum with some anthelmintic drugs were negligible. Using this ELISA, serum levels of IVM were easily determined in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) up to 72 hr following a single oral dose of 500 microgram/kg of body weight.
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A soluble form of Fc gamma RIII is present in human serum and other body fluids and is elevated at sites of inflammation.We have developed a highly sensitive and specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the concentration of Fc gamma RIII in serum and other body fluids. This ELISA is based on the use of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (3G8) to Fc gamma RIII and a rabbit antiserum against Fc gamma RIII. The lower limit of detection of this ELISA was 1.5 nmol/L. The concentration of soluble Fc gamma RIII in normal serum ranged from 7.3 to 75.9 nmol/L. Soluble Fc gamma RIII was also present in other normal biologic fluids such as saliva, urine, and seminal fluid, but at much lower concentrations than that found in serum. Rabbit anti-Fc gamma RIII immunoblotted polypeptides immunoprecipitated with MoAb 3G8. Fc gamma RIII immunoprecipitated from a neutrophil lysate migrated from 40 to 76 Kd, whereas Fc gamma RIII immunoprecipitated from serum from the same donor migrated from 40 to 66 Kd. The soluble form of Fc gamma RIII apparently was bound to serum IgG, because immunoprecipitation of soluble Fc gamma RIII by MoAb 3G8 coprecipitated polypeptides that were identified by goat antihuman IgG. Incubation of neutrophils in vitro at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C showed that Fc gamma RIII was released after 30 minutes of incubation at 37 degrees C. To determine whether there was a correlation between the concentration of soluble Fc gamma RIII in biologic fluids and inflammatory diseases, we measured the concentration of Fc gamma RIII in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in the synovial fluid from patients with various forms of arthritis. In ARDS, we found concentrations of soluble Fc gamma RIII that were five to seven times higher than that found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from healthy adults. The concentration of soluble Fc gamma RIII in the synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis ranged from 10 nmol/L to 28 mumol/L. These results suggest that activated neutrophils, such as those at sites of inflammation, may release Fc gamma RIII.
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Proteins associated with activity of Fc receptors on isolated human placental syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membranes.To identify Fc receptors from human placental microvilli, proteins that were liberated by detergents from human placental synctiotrophoblast microvillous membranes (StMPM) were characterized by their abilities to bind human IgG in immune complexes with sheep or goat anti-human IgG and to monomeric rabbit anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgG bound to DNP-lysine Sepharose. Three placental IgG-binding proteins coprecipitated with immune complexes (Mr = 68,000, 52,000-56,000, 40,000) and were designated pIBP68, pIBP56 and pIBP40, respectively. Of the three proteins only pIBP56 bound to immobilized monomeric rabbit IgG. It was isolated from detergent lysates of StMPM and LDS/phenol glycoprotein extracts of placental plasma membranes suggesting that pIBP56 was a glycoprotein FcR previously reported (Mikulska et al, 1982). The binding specificities of pIBP56 and pIBP40 appeared to be detergent dependent. Photoaffinity crosslinking of StMPM surface proteins in situ to monomeric rabbit derivatized with N-succinimidyl(4-azidophenyl)-I, 3-dithiopropionate identified IgG-binding proteins identical in size to pIBP56 and pIBP40. Crosslinking further suggested that monomeric IgG covalently bound to a complex of StMPM proteins with a total size of 110,000-120,000 Mr. The findings suggest that pIBP68, pIBP56 and pIBP68 are responsible for IgG binding activity of placental StMPM.
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Selective modulation of two human monocyte Fc receptors for IgG by immobilized immune complexes.Two types of IgG FcR, FcRI and FcRII, are constitutively expressed by human monocytes. FcRI (identified by mAb 32.2) binds human (h) IgG, FcRII (identified by mAb IV.3) has a low affinity for hIgG but interacts strongly with murine (m) IgG1. These receptors can be assayed by using indicator E sensitized by hIgG (EA-hIgG) or mIgG1 (EA-mIgG1), respectively. We further characterized these two FcR by modulation studies by using substrate-immobilized immune complexes containing rabbit IgG, goat IgG, or one of the mouse Ig classes or subclasses. After incubating monocytes in microtiter wells containing such immune complexes, binding of the two types of indicator red cells on the apical surface of the monocytes was quantitated using a photometric assay employing the pseudoperoxidase activity of E. No effect on the binding of sensitized E was observed after incubation of monocytes with immune complexes containing mouse IgE, IgA, or IgM, or F(ab')2 fragments of rabbit IgG. High concentrations of immune complexes containing IgG of mouse, rabbit, or goat, however, were able to induce a decrease in binding of both types of sensitized E, suggestive of modulation of both FcRI and FcRII. At lower concentrations of immune complexes, more selective patterns of modulation emerged. Under these conditions, immune complexes containing mIgG1 or mIgG2b, or, surprisingly, goat IgG induced a selective decrease in the binding of EA-mIgG1 (FcRII modulation), while immune complexes containing mIgG2a or rabbit IgG mainly affected the binding of EA-hIgG (FcRI modulation). By using anti-FcR mAb IV.3, it was confirmed that FcRII was modulated from the apical surface of monocytes after incubation on immune complex coated substrates. Selectivity of FcR-modulation was demonstrated by showing that under these conditions binding of anti-C receptor mAb, and several other anti-monocyte mAb did not decrease.
2814 related Products with: Selective modulation of two human monocyte Fc receptors for IgG by immobilized immune complexes.Mouse anti Human IgG anti Mouse Anti-Human IgG-Fc Mouse Anti-Human IgG-Fc Sheep Anti-Human IgG (Fc) Mouse Anti-Human IgG (Fc) Mouse Anti-Human IgG1 (Fc Goat Anti Human IgG (FC), Goat Anti Human IgG (FC), Goat Anti Human IgG (FC), Mouse Monoclonal anti-hum Native Human IgG (Fc) Pro Anti Human IgG (Fc
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The mobility of concanavalin A receptors and surface immunoglobulins on rat hepatocyte plasma membranes.Lateral mobilities of lectin receptors and surface immunoglobulins were measured in plasma membranes of hepatocytes prepared by smearing small pieces of rat liver tissue and then using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique. Smears were treated with various doses of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated concanavalin A (ConA), succinylated ConA (SConA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and soybean agglutinin (SBA), as well as with rabbit anti-rat IgG (RARa/IgG) and goat anti-rat IgM(Fc) (GARa/IgM(Fc] antisera. 10 micrograms/ml ConA and SConA concentrations and a 55 X dilution of the GARa/IgM(Fc) antiserum were found to be suitable for measuring the lateral mobilities dependent on age. Diffusion constant and mobile fractions of receptor complexes were measured in different age groups of female Fisher rats (from 1 to 26 month-old). The FRAP measurements revealed that at least two major receptor sites can be distinguished in cell membranes of compact tissue (similar to the cultured and isolated cells), forming a mobile and an immobile fraction. The mobile fractions of both the lectin receptors and the surface immunoglobulins tended to decrease with age, while the age differences of the diffusion constants were not statistically significant. The observed alterations could be due to the covalent crosslinking of the mobile receptors to immobile patches and/or to the retardation of free diffusion by the cytoskeleton, dependent on age.
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Use of human antibodies to identify antigens in cultured human tumor cells: detection of discrete antigen molecules using electroblotting and enzyme-linked antibody probes.To demonstrate antigens in cultured human tumor cells recognized by antibodies in human sera, extracts of cultured malignant melanoma cells were separated by SDS-PAGE, and electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose paper (NCP). The resulting electroblots were incubated with human serum, and bound immunoglobulin (Ig) was visualized with rabbit antibodies specific for human IgG, IgA or IgM, followed by peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. Antigen-antibody reactions in the nitrocellulose paper were also detected using 125I-labeled anti-rabbit IgG. As little as 125 pg of bound antibody per band were detectable. The numbers of proteins recognized by antibodies in human sera depended both on the quantity of protein transferred and the concentration of Ig applied to the NCP. Whole serum could not be used at dilutions less than or equal to 1:20 without an unacceptable increase in background staining. Binding of Ig to tumor cell proteins transferred to NCP depended on interactions with the Fab', not the Fc region of the Ig molecule. To determine the efficiency of transfer as a function of both time and molecular weight, tumor cell proteins were intrinsically labeled with 75Se-labeled methionine and transferred for up to 4 h after fractionation in gels containing acrylamide concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, 10% or 12%. Proteins less than 150 kDa were transferred with particularly high efficiency in greater than or equal to 2 h. Different antigens were recognized by the IgA, the IgG and the IgM molecules from the same sera. The methods outlined herein are proving to be useful in monitoring the purification of specific antigens from whole tumor cell extracts.
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Characterization of human T lymphocytes that express the C3b receptor.The presence of the C3b receptor (C3bR) on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes was recognized by the capacity of rabbit F(ab')2 anti-C3bR and tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-conjugated goat F(ab')2 anti-rabbit F(ab')2 to stain 14.5 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SEM; n = 5) of lymphocytes forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (E). The F(ab')2 anti-C3bR also blocked the capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes stained with OKT11 to form rosettes with bovine E bearing C3b and immunoprecipitated a single membrane protein having a m.w. of approximately 250,000 from detergent lysates of 125I-labeled, purified T cells. Measurement by fluorescent flow cytometry of the quantitative expression of the C3bR indicated that T cells had slightly more antigenic sites/cell than did E and approximately 10-fold fewer sites than were present on B cells. The surface constituents of the peripheral blood T cells expressing the C3bR were assessed in an assay that employed simultaneously three markers: rosette formation with sheep E, TRITC staining with anti-C3bR and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-staining with a panel of monoclonal antibodies or with aggregated IgG. Among lymphocytes forming rosettes with sheep E and expressing the C3bR, 99.6 +/- 0.4%, 65.0 +/- 5.8%, 17.2 +/- 6.2%, and 15.3 +/- 5.0% of the cells expressed antigens detected by OKT3, OKT4, OKT8, and OKM1 monoclonal antibodies, respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of the C3bR-bearing T cells were also capable of specifically binding aggregated IgG, indicating the presence of Fc receptors for IgG (Fc gamma R) on these cells. The T cells expressing the C3bR had large nuclei, thin rims of basophilic cytoplasm and no azurophilic granules. Thus, the C3bR is present on some T cells, all of which have a typical lymphocyte morphology, the T3 antigen and the Fc gamma R.
Human Tumor Necrosis Fact Interferon-a Receptor Typ Mouse Anti-Human Thyroid Mouse Anti-Human Thyroid RANK Ligand Soluble, Huma TCP-1 theta antibody Sour TGF beta Receptor III ant Recombinant Human 4-1BB R Recombinant Human IFN-alp Recombinant Human Interfe Recombinant Human IFN-alp Recombinant Human Osteopr
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