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#28399040   2017/04/11 Save this To Up

A New Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for a Total Anti-T Lymphocyte Globulin Determination: Development, Analytical Validation, and Clinical Applications.

Anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) modulates the alloreactivity of T lymphocytes, reducing the risk of immunological posttransplant complications, in particular rejection and graft-versus-host disease, after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We developed and validated a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to measure serum levels of total ATLG and evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the drug in children with β-Thalassemia, receiving allogeneic HSCT.

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#28243563   2017/02/28 Save this To Up

Comparison of four functionalization methods of gold nanoparticles for enhancing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique is based on the specific recognition ability of the molecular structure of an antigen (epitope) by an antibody and is likely the most important diagnostic technique used today in bioscience. With this methodology, it is possible to diagnose illness, allergies, alimentary fraud, and even to detect small molecules such as toxins, pesticides, heavy metals, etc. For this reason, any procedures that improve the detection limit, sensitivity or reduce the analysis time could have an important impact in several fields. In this respect, many methods have been developed for improving the technique, ranging from fluorescence substrates to methods for increasing the number of enzyme molecules involved in the detection such as the biotin-streptavidin method. In this context, nanotechnology has offered a significant number of proposed solutions, mainly based on the functionalization of nanoparticles from gold to carbon which could be used as antibody carriers as well as reporter enzymes like peroxidase. However, few works have focused on the study of best practices for nanoparticle functionalization for ELISA enhancement. In this work, we use 20 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a vehicle for secondary antibodies and peroxidase (HRP). The design of experiments technique (DOE) and four different methods for biomolecule loading were compared using a rabbit IgG/goat anti-rabbit IgG ELISA model (adsorption, directional, covalent and a combination thereof). As a result, AuNP probes prepared by direct adsorption were the most effective method. AuNPs probes were then used to detect gliadin, one of the main components of wheat gluten, the protein composite that causes celiac disease. With this optimized approach, our data showed a sensitivity increase of at least five times and a lower detection limit with respect to a standard ELISA of at least three times. Additionally, the assay time was remarkably decreased.

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#27974399   2016/12/15 Save this To Up

Serological Analysis of Tuberculosis in Goats by Use of the Enferplex Caprine TB Multiplex Test.

Tuberculosis in goats is usually diagnosed clinically, at postmortem, or by a positive skin test. However, none of these approaches detects all infected animals. Serology offers an additional tool to identify infected animals missed by current tests. We describe the use of the Enferplex Caprine TB serology test to aid the management of a large dairy goat herd undergoing a tuberculosis breakdown. Initial skin and serology testing showed that IgG antibodies were present in both serum and milk from 100% of skin test-positive animals and in serum and milk from 77.8 and 95.4% of skin test-negative animals, respectively. A good correlation was observed between serum and milk antibody levels. The herd had been vaccinated against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, but no direct serological cross-reactions were found. Subsequent skin testing revealed 13.7% positive animals, 64.9% of which were antibody positive, while 42.1% of skin test-negative animals were seropositive. Antibody responses remained high 1 month later (57.1% positive), and the herd was slaughtered. Postmortem analysis of 20 skin test-negative goats revealed visible lesions in 6 animals, all of which had antibodies to six Mycobacterium bovis antigens. The results provide indirect evidence that serology testing with serum or milk could be a useful tool in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in goats.

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#27965004   2016/12/14 Save this To Up

The comparative in vitro assessment of e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols using the γH2AX assay and applied dose measurements.

DNA damage can be caused by a variety of external and internal factors and together with cellular responses, can establish genomic instability through multiple pathways. DNA damage therefore, is considered to play an important role in the aetiology and early stages of carcinogenesis. The DNA-damage inducing potential of tobacco smoke aerosols in vitro has been extensively investigated; however, the ability of e-cigarette aerosols to induce DNA damage has not been extensively investigated. E-cigarette use has grown globally in recent years and the health implications of long term e-cigarette use are still unclear. Therefore, this study has assessed the induction of double-strand DNA damage in vitro using human lung epithelial cells to e-cigarette aerosols from two different product variants (a "cigalike" and a closed "modular" system) and cigarette smoke. A Vitrocell(®) VC 10 aerosol exposure system was used to generate and dilute cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols, which were delivered to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs) housed at the air-liquid-interface (ALI) for up to 120min exposure (diluting airflow, 0.25-1L/min). Following exposure, cells were immediately fixed, incubated with primary (0.1% γH2AX antibody in PBS) and secondary antibodies (DyLight™ 549 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG) containing Hoechst dye DNA staining solution (0.2% secondary antibody and 0.01% Hoechst in PBS), and finally screened using the Cellomics Arrayscan VTI platform. The results from this study demonstrate a clear DNA damage-induced dose response with increasing smoke concentrations up to cytotoxic levels. In contrast, e-cigarette aerosols from two product variants did not induce DNA damage at equivalent to or greater than doses of cigarette smoke aerosol. In this study dosimetry approaches were used to contextualize exposure, define exposure conditions and facilitate comparisons between cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology and quantified nicotine delivery were both assessed at the exposure interface. Nicotine was eluted from the QCM surface to give a quantifiable measure of exposure to support deposited mass. Dose measured as deposited mass (μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (ng/mL) demonstrated that in vitro e-cigarette exposures were conducted at doses up to 12-28 fold to that of cigarette smoke and demonstrated a consistent negative finding.

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#27464505   2016/09/06 Save this To Up

Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for S-Adenosylhomocysteine Detection and Its Application in DNA Methyltransferase Activity Evaluation and Inhibitors Screening.

Aberrant methylation by DNA transferase is associated with cancer initiation and progression. For high-throughput screening of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity and its inhibitors, a novel chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was established to detect S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), the product of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) transmethylation reactions. We synthesized two kinds of immunogens for SAH and characterized the polyclonal antibodies in each group. The antibody with higher titer was used to develop a competitive CLIA for SAH, in which SAH in samples would compete with SAH coated on microplate in binding with SAH antibodies. Successively, horseradish peroxidase labeled goat antirabbit IgG (HRP-IgG) was conjugated with SAH antibodies on the microplate. In substrate solution containing luminol and H2O2, HRP-IgG catalyzed luminol oxidation by H2O2, generating a high chemiluminescence signal. The method could detect as low as 9.8 ng mL(-1) SAH with little cross-reaction (3.8%) to SAM. Since higher DNA MTase activity leads to more production of SAH, a correlation between the chemiluminescence intensity and DNA MTase activity was obtained in the range from 0.1 to 8.0 U/mL of DNA MTase. The inhibition study showed that, in the presence of SAM as methyl donor, Lomeguatrib, 5-Azacytidine, and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine could inhibit the DNA MTase activity with IC50 values of 40.57 nM, 2.26 μM, and 0.48 μM, respectively. These results are consistent with the published studies. The proposed assay does not depend on recognizing methylated cytosines in oligonucleotides (methyl acceptor) and showed the potential as an accessible platform for sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity and screening its inhibitors.

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#27311112   2016/08/13 Save this To Up

A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis.

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#27152908   2016/05/06 Save this To Up

Application of Goldmag immune probe in timely detection of syphilis based on GIS platform.

The purpose of this study was to apply goldmag immunoprobes into establishment of nanoparticles-based colorimetric assay as well as construction of immunochromatography quantitative and qualitative system by exploring point-of-care testing of syphilis with goldmag particles carrier-based immunoprobe and analysis of spatial data of Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. Goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) was coupled on the surface of modified nanoparticles, taking N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl-carbodiimide as the connector. Then the nanoparticles were used for colorimetric detection of goat-anti-rabbit IgG in liquid phase system. Based on the analysis of spatial data in GIS platform, we found the probe constructed based on MUA-Fe304/Au nanoparticles responded more sensitive to detection objects compared with the probe designed based on PAA-Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles, and its reaction rate constant was two times that of PAA-Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles based goldmag immunoprobe. Goldmag particles not only can be coupled with biomolecules such as antibody/antigen and glycoprotein but also possess superparamagnetism.

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#26374150   2015/10/14 Save this To Up

Detection of leukemia markers using long-range surface plasmon waveguides functionalized with Protein G.

A novel optical biosensor based on long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguides is demonstrated for the detection of leukemia markers in patient serum using a functionalization strategy based on Protein G. The sensor consists of thin straight Au waveguides (5 μm × 35 nm × 3.2 mm) embedded in fluoropolymer CYTOP™ with a fluidic channel etched into the top cladding. B-cell leukemia is characterized by a high B-cell count and abnormal distribution of immunoglobulin G kappa (IgGκ) and lambda (IgGλ) light chains in serum. The detection of leukemic abnormalities in serum was performed based on determining IgGκ-to-IgGλ ratios (κ : λ). Three patient sera were tested: high kappa (HKS, κ : λ ~12.7 : 1), high lambda (HLS, λ : κ ~6.9 : 1) and normal (control) sera (NS, κ : λ ~1.7 : 1). Au waveguides were functionalized with Protein G and two complementary immobilization approaches were investigated: a) the reverse approach, where the Protein G surface is functionalized with patient serum and then tested against goat anti-human IgG light chains in buffer, and b) the direct approach, where the Protein G surface is functionalized with goat anti-human IgGs first and then tested against patient serum. The reverse approach was found to be more effective and robust because Protein G-functionalized surface performs as an "immunological filter" by capturing primarily IgGs out of the pool of serum proteins. For the reverse approach, the ratios measured were 3.7 : 1(κ : λ), 9.7 : 1(λ : κ) and 1.9 : 1(κ : λ) for HKS, HLS and NS, respectively, which compare favorably with corresponding protein densitometry measurements. The respective ratios for the direct approach were 2.6 : 1(κ : λ), 2.6 : 1(λ : κ) and 1.7 : 1(κ : λ). The binding strength and cross-reactivity of goat anti-human IgGs light chains were also determined using pure solutions. The LRSPP biosensor along with the innovative "reverse approach" can provide a low-cost and compact solution to B-cell leukemia screening.

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#25982137   2015/11/21 Save this To Up

Establishment of evanescent wave fiber-optic immunosensor method for detection bluetongue virus.

The evanescent wave fiber immunosensors (EWFI) technique was developed for the real-time rapidly sensitive and specific detection of the monoclonal antibody 3E2 of BTV. The outer-core protein VP7 of BTV was labled on the surface of the exposed fiber-optic core. The monoclonal antibody 3E2 of BTV VP7 were added and then the goat ant-rat IgG conjugated with Cy3 was captured. After the 532nm pulse (excitation source) reached the fiber probe, evanescent wave was generated, which excited the Cy3 bound to the immuno-complex and produced the fluorescent signal, which was changed into electrical signals read through computer. The preliminary results suggested that a detection limit of 10ng/ml was measured for the monoclonal antibody 3E2, which is equal to the sensitivity of ELISA. The 3E2 sample was specifically detected through the EWFI assay in 15min, and the fiber can be recycled at least ten times through TEA solution condition. This developed EWFI was a real-time rapidly sensitive and specific way for the detection of BTV antibodies.

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#25545783   2015/03/19 Save this To Up

Development of a microfluidic-based assay on a novel nitrocellulose platform.

A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) utilizing a nitrocellulose (NC) membrane to detect IgG antibodies through a colorimetric analysis is described. The μPAD was constructed using layered polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA). The biotin labeled Goat Anti-Mouse IgG antibody was spotted and dried on the NC channel prior to subjecting it to a series of wash solutions (Tris-tween), increasing concentrations of alkaline phosphatase conjugated to streptavidin (Strep-ALP), and para-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) realizing a vibrant yellow color. The reaction proceeds for 10 min before applying the p-NPP stop solution. The device was then dried, scanned, and analyzed yielding a linear range of inverse yellow color intensities versus Strep-ALP concentrations. The development of this simple μPAD should further facilitate the use of NC in colorimetric assays to detect and quantitate antibodies.

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