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Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta regulates lipid droplet formation and transport in goat mammary epithelial cells.

Even though recent evidence in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) suggest a role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) in regulating lipid homeostasis, its role is not fully understood. Our hypothesis was that PPARD regulates lipid transport processes in GMEC and, thus, plays a crucial role in regulating fat formation. The PPARD was overexpressed using an adenovirus system (Ad-PPARD) with recombinant green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) as the control. Results revealed that overexpression of PPARD markedly upregulated the mRNA abundance of PPARD. Compared with the control (Ad-GFP+dimethyl sulfoxide), overexpression of PPARD alone had no effect on mRNA expression of CD36, SCD1, FABP4, ACSL1, and ADRP. The cultures overexpressing PPARD with the PPARD ligand GW0742 (GW) upregulated the expression of CD36, FABP3, FABP4, ACSL1, and ADRP. Overexpression of PPARD in GMEC plus GW increased the concentration of 16:1 and 18:1-trans and was associated with upregulation of SCD1. Compared with the control (Ad-GFP+dimethyl sulfoxide), the decrease of triacylglycerol concentration coupled with upregulation of genes related to lipid droplet secretion (e.g., ADRP and ACSL1) induced by PPARD overexpression suggests a role in lipid droplet (LD) secretion. Luciferase assay revealed that GW increased the ADRP promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of PPARD impaired the increase of ADRP promoter activity induced by GW, whereas GW enhanced the activity of ADRP promoter in GMEC overexpressing PPARD. Data with the ADRP 5'-flanking truncated luciferase reporter suggest a core region (-1,444 to -990 bp) response element for the induction of GW. This core region contains a known PPARG response element (PPRE) at -1,003 to -990 bp. When the PPRE was mutated, the overexpression of PPARD had no effect on ADRP promoter activity. Collectively, these results reveal a novel role for PPARD in lipid homeostasis via promoting fatty acid transport and LD formation through a mechanism of direct binding to the promoter of key genes. Hence, PPARD activity may contribute to fatty acid transport and LD formation during lactation.

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Nile Red, A lipophilic dy anti Transferrin receptor Human Internal Mammary Ar GFP Expressing Human Inte Goat Anti-Human Androgen Goat Anti-Human Bradykini Goat Anti-Human, Mouse Ca Goat Anti-Human Casein Ki Goat Anti-Rat CCKA Recept Goat Anti- Dopamine recep Goat Anti- EP1 receptor P Goat Anti-Human EP4 prost

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Accumulation patterns and risk assessment of metals and metalloid in muscle and offal of free-range chickens, cattle and goat in Benin City, Nigeria.

The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer. Mean concentrations of metals (mg/kg ww) varied significantly depending upon the tissues and animal species. Human health risk estimations for children and adults showed estimated daily intake (EDI) values of tissues below oral reference dose (RfD) threshold for non essential metals Cd, As, Pb and Hg thus strongly indicating no possible health risk via consumption of animal based food. Calculated Hazard quotient (THQ) was less than 1 (< 1) for all the metals analyzed for both adult and children. However, Cd and As had the highest value of THQ suggestive of possible health risk associated with continuous consumption of Cd and As contaminated animal based foods. Hazard Index (HI) for additive effect of metals was higher in chicken liver and gizzard for children and chicken liver for adults. Thus, HI indicated that chicken liver and gizzard may contribute significantly to adult and children dietary exposure to heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear species difference in metal accumulation between chickens and the ruminants. This study provides baseline data for future studies and also valuable evidence of anthropogenic impacts necessary to initiate national and international policies for control of heavy metal and metalloid content in food items.

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Goat Anti-Human Androgen Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst-

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Goat tendon collagen-human fibrin hydrogel for comprehensive parametric evaluation of HUVEC microtissue-based angiogenesis.

The cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a very important role during angiogenesis. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix along with pro-angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors, and matrix-degrading proteases, accounts for endothelial cell growth, migration, and tube formation. However, for studying angiogenesis, only limited and expensive biomaterials are available. Despite being biocompatible, inexpensive, and easy availability; the potential of goat tendon collagen (GTC) has never been explored for vascular tissue engineering applications. Hence, the current investigation was focused on evaluating GTC as an alternative matrix for HUVEC microtissue-based angiogenesis. HUVEC microtissues (MTs), synthesized via hanging drop method, were subjected to angiogenesis in GTC-human fibrin (HF) hydrogels. Sprouting tip cells originated from the MTs within 24 h. Further, comprehensive in vitro study and in vivo validation revealed that, endothelial media with FBS and growth factors, 24 h old HUVEC MTs of 500 cells, seeded at 200 aggregates/cm3 in GTC-HF gel of 100 Pa elastic modulus, resulted in most optimal angiogenesis with intact lumen that was stable up to a week, without any supporting cells. Although early to predict, GTC-HF matrix may serve as a potential ECM for engineering complex and functional tissues of clinical relevance.

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Rat Tail Type I Collagen Bovine Type I Collagen ba Goat Anti-Human Collagen Goat Anti-Human Collagen Goat Anti-Human Collagen Goat Anti-Human Collagen Goat Anti-Human Collagen Goat Anti-Human Collagen Goat Anti-Human Collagen Goat Anti-Human Collagen Goat Anti-Human Collagen Bone Morphogenetic Protei

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Rhubarb supplementation promotes intestinal mucosal innate immune homeostasis through modulating intestinal epithelial microbiota in goat kids.

The abuse and misuse of antibiotics in livestock production pose a potential health risk globally. Rhubarb can serve as a potential alternative to antibiotics, and several studies have looked into its anti-cancer, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to test the effects of rhubarb supplementation to the diet of young ruminants on innate immune function and epithelial microbiota in the small intestine. Goat kids were fed with a control diet supplemented with or without rhubarb (1.25% DM), and were slaughtered at d 50 and 60 of age. Results showed that the supplementation of rhubarb increased ileal villus height (P = 0.036), increased jejujal and ileal anti-inflammatory IL-10 production (P < 0.05), increased jejunal and ileal Claudin-1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05), and decreased ileal pro-inflammatory IL-1β production (P < 0.05). These changes in innate immune function were accompanied by shifts in ileal epithelial bacterial ecosystem in favor of Blautia, Clostridium, Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas, and with a decline in the relative abundance of Staphylococcus (P < 0.001) when rhubarb was supplemented. Additionally, age also affected (P < 0.05) crypt depth, cytokine production, Claudin-1 expression and relative abundances of specific genera in epithelial bacteria. Collectively, the supplementation of rhubarb could enhance host mucosal innate immune homeostasis by modulating intestinal epithelial microbiota during early stages of animal development.

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alkaline phosphatase (int GLP 1 ELISA Kit, Rat Gluc GLP 2 ELISA Kit, Rat Prog Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA

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Formation of phosphatidylethanol from endogenous phosphatidylcholines in animal tissues from pig, calf, and goat.

In the presence of alcohol, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is transformed to the direct alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth). This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) and dependent on substrate availability. As recent methods have solely focused on the determination of PEth, information about the PC composition was generally missing. To address this issue and monitor PC (16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2) and PEth (16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2) simultaneously, a reversed phase LC-MS/MS method based on a C8 core-shell column, coupled to a Sciex 5500 QTrap instrument was developed. By application of polarity switching, at first, PC was measured in ESI positive SRM mode, while PEth was determined at a later stage in ESI negative SRM mode. The PEth method was validated for human blood samples to show its robustness and subsequently applied for the investigation of systematic in vitro PEth formation in animal tissue samples (brain, kidney, liver, and blood) from a pig, a calf, and a goat. Homogenized tissue was incubated at 37°C with varying ethanol concentrations from 1 to 7g/kg (determined by HS-GC-FID) for 5h, whereby a sample was taken every 30min. For all tissue samples, an increase in PEth was measurable. PEth concentrations formed in blood remained below the LLOQ, in agreement with literature. Data analysis of Michaelis-Menten kinetics and PC within the tissue provided a detailed insight about PEth formation, as the occurrence of PEth species can be linked to the observed PC composition. The results of this study show that PEth formation rates vary from tissue to tissue and among different species. Furthermore, new recommendations for PEth analysis are presented.

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Alkaline Phospatase (ALP) Goat Anti-Human, Pig NANO Sterile filtered goat se Sterile filtered goat se Goat Anti- TRPM8, (intern Goat Anti- TFAP2D, (inter Goat Anti- T1R3, (interna Goat Anti-Human Synaptota Goat Anti-Human STK39 SPA Goat Anti-Human SPHK1, (i Goat Anti-Human SODD, (in Goat Anti-Human SIGLEC8,

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Validation of a rapid lateral flow method for the detection of cows' milk in water buffalo, sheep or goat milk.

For many years the adulteration of milk from sheep, goats or water buffalos with cows' milk has been a widespread practice due to the higher cost of milk from those other species. Because of this, great concern has been shown by many Protected Designation of Origin councils that have to assure the quality and genuineness of the cheese produced by their associates. Therefore, the whole production chain needs analytical tools that allow the control of potential adulteration. Rapid methods to be used in the field are scarce and have not been validated according to international guidelines. The aim of this work has been to validate a rapid test based on lateral flow immunochromatography to detect cows' milk in milk from other species, including buffalo's milk, according to AOAC guidelines. No false-positive result was found after analyzing 146 known negative samples from individual animals. The lowest level of adulteration with a Probability of Detection (POD) of 1.00 (confidence interval between 0.94 and 1.00) was found at 0.5% of cows' milk. This level is below the current EU allowed level of cows' milk, set at 1% (Commission Regulation (EC) No 273/2008). Variations in the time of assay, volume of the analysis buffer and different batches of the test were evaluated to detect any effect on the false-positive rate or on the limit of detection of the test. The effects of compositional factors (such as high level of fat, protein and somatic cell counts) were also evaluated. The new rapid test to detect cows' milk in milk from other species is shown to be an adequate tool to control milk quality in routine analysis. This kind of test is very easy to use and it can be performed by untrained staff during milk collection at the farm or upon arrival at dairies.

2319 related Products with: Validation of a rapid lateral flow method for the detection of cows' milk in water buffalo, sheep or goat milk.

FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Goat Anti-Human ORAI1 CRA Thermal Shaker with cooli EnzyChrom™ Kinase Assay Normal rat multiple organ Normal rat multiple organ Normal rat multiple organ

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Akt Serine/Threonine Kinase 1 Regulates De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis through mTOR/SREBP1 Axis in Dairy Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.

Akt serine/threonine kinase acts as a central mediator in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulating a series of biological processes. In lipid metabolism, Akt activation regulates a series of gene expressions, including genes related to intracellular fatty acid synthesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Akt in dairy goat mammary lipid metabolism have not been elaborated. In this study, the coding sequences of goat Akt1 gene were cloned and analyzed. Gene expression of Akt1 in different lactation stages was also investigated. For In vitro studies, a eukaryotic expression vector of Akt1 was constructed and transfected to goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs), and specific inhibitors of Akt/mTOR signaling were applied to GMECs. Results showed that Akt1 protein was highly conserved, and its mRNA was highly expressed in mid-lactation. In vitro studies indicated that Akt1 phosphorylation activated mTOR and subsequently enhanced sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), thus increased intracellular triacylglycerol content. Inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling down-regulated the gene expression of lipogenic genes. Overall, Akt1 plays an important role in regulating de novo fatty acid synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells, and this process may probably be through mTOR/SREBP1 axis.

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Goat Anti-Human Serine Th Goat Anti-Human Casein Ki serine threonine kinase 4 EnzyChrom™ Free Fatty A Goat Anti-Human ATGL Desn Goat Anti-Human CKB Brain PathwayReady™ PI3 K Akt MarkerGeneTM Live Dead As Anti-Serine Threonine-Pro Fatty acid free heat sho Fatty acid free heat sho Sterile filtered goat se

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High seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus in domestic ruminants and African Buffaloes in Mozambique shows need for intensified surveillance.

Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne disease that affects both animals and humans. RVF phlebovirus (RVFPV) is widespread in Africa and Arabian Peninsula. In Mozambique, outbreaks were reported in South; seroprevalence studies performed in livestock and water buffaloes were limited to central and south regions. We evaluated the seroprevalence of RVFPV among domestic ruminants and African buffaloes from 7 of 10 provinces of Mozambique, to understand the distribution of RVFPV and provide data for further RVF control programs. Materials and methods: A total of 1581 blood samples were collected in cattle, 1117 in goats, 85 in sheep and 69 in African buffaloes, between 2013 and 2014, and the obtained sera were analyzed by ELISA. Results and discussion: The overall seroprevalence of RVFPV domestic ruminants and African buffaloes was 25.6%. The highest was observed in cattle (37.3%) and African buffaloes (30.4%), which were higher than in previous studies within Mozambique. In south and central regions, the overall seroprevalences were higher (14.9%-62.4%) than in the north. Conclusion: This study showed the presence of anti-RVFPV antibodies in animals from all sampled provinces, suggesting that RVFPV is actively circulating among domestic ruminants and African buffaloes in Mozambique, therefore surveillance should be intensified.

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Apoptosis antibody array Cell cycle antibody array Cytokine antibody array i Signal transduction antib AKT Phospho-Specific Arra AKT PKB Signaling Phospho AMPK Signaling Phospho-Sp Apoptosis Phospho-Specifi Cancer Apoptosis Phospho- Cell Cycle Control Phosph Cell Cycle Phospho-Specif Chromatin Transcription P

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Expression of Vimentin in hair follicle growth cycle of inner Mongolian Cashmere goats.

The growth of Inner Mongolian Cashmere goat skin hair follicle exhibits a periodic growth pattern. The hair growth cycle is distinguished as telogen, anagen, and catagen stages. The role of vimentin in the growth process of hair follicles is evident. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the vimentin activity in the growth cycle of hair follicles, transcriptome sequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to obtain the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of VIIM gene and vimentin. The amino acid and nucleic acid sequences were analyzed by comparison. Real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry analyzed the expression level and sites of vimentin in the three growth stages of the Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat skin samples.

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Evaluation of a point-of-care blood glucose monitor in healthy goats.

To assess agreement between a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and a laboratory chemistry analyzer for blood glucose measurements in goats.

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