Search results for: Goat
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Imine Deaminase Activity and Conformational Stability of UK114, the Mammalian Member of the Rid Protein Family Active in Amino Acid Metabolism.Reactive intermediate deaminase (Rid) protein family is a recently discovered group of enzymes that is conserved in all domains of life and is proposed to play a role in the detoxification of reactive enamines/imines. UK114, the mammalian member of RidA subfamily, was identified in the early 90s as a component of perchloric acid-soluble extracts from goat liver and exhibited immunomodulatory properties. Multiple activities were attributed to this protein, but its function is still unclear. This work addressed the question of whether UK114 is a Rid enzyme. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that UK114 hydrolyzes α-imino acids generated by l- or d-amino acid oxidases with a preference for those deriving from Ala > Leu = l-Met > l-Gln, whereas it was poorly active on l-Phe and l-His. Circular Dichroism (CD) analyses of UK114 conformational stability highlighted its remarkable resistance to thermal unfolding, even at high urea concentrations. The half-life of heat inactivation at 95 °C, measured from CD and activity data, was about 3.5 h. The unusual conformational stability of UK114 could be relevant in the frame of a future evaluation of its immunogenic properties. In conclusion, mammalian UK114 proteins are RidA enzymes that may play an important role in metabolism homeostasis also in these organisms.
2656 related Products with: Imine Deaminase Activity and Conformational Stability of UK114, the Mammalian Member of the Rid Protein Family Active in Amino Acid Metabolism.Fibroblast Growth Factor Fibroblast Growth Factor CD40 Ligand protein CD40 G protein-coupled recepto amyloid beta precursor pr Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Primary antibody IL-1RAc Primary antibody IL-1RAc Anti Galectin(Gal 3) Huma anti GFP antibody, rat mo
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Gene Expression and Localization of LAMTOR3 in the Skin Cells of Liaoning Cashmere Goats.Liaoning cashmere goats are the most precious genetic resources in China. The function of LAMTOR3 [late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and mammalian target of rapamycin activator 3/MAPK scaffold protein 1] gene is expressed in the skin of Liaoning cashmere goats. In situ hybridization (ISH) found that LAMTOR3 is expressed in the inner root sheath (IRS) of hair follicles. During the anagen or catagen phase, the expression of LAMTOR3 is higher in secondary hair follicles than in primary hair follicles. Expression of LAMTOR3 in skin cells treated with melatonin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is lower than in untreated cells. In addition, the simultaneous treatment of fibroblast growth factor 5 and melatonin decrease the expression of LAMTOR3 in skin cells. The simultaneous treatment with melatonin and 10 g/L IGF-1 or 10 g/L IGF-1 increases the expression of LAMTOR3 gene in skin cells. If Noggin expression is decreased, then LAMTOR3 expression is increased. This hypothesis suggested that LAMTOR3 influences the character of cashmere fiber, and it may regulate the development of hair follicle and cashmere growth by inducing the MAPK signaling pathway.
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Serogroups, subtypes and virulence factors of shiga toxin-producingisolated from human, calves and goats in Kerman, Iran.The present study was conducted to detect the occurrence, serogroups, virulence genes and phylogenetic relationship of shiga toxin-producing(STEC) in human, clave and goat in Kerman (southeast of Iran).
2242 related Products with: Serogroups, subtypes and virulence factors of shiga toxin-producingisolated from human, calves and goats in Kerman, Iran.Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Goat Anti-Human Androgen CAR,CAR,Constitutive acti Contact Factors: Human Fa Recombinant Human Androge Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon CELLKINES Natural Human I Shiga Toxin 1 antibody, M Shiga Toxin 2 antibody, M
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Evaluation of Fluorescence Microsphere Immunoassay for the Detection of Antibodies to Rift Valley Fever Nucleocapsid Protein and Glycoproteins.Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus that infects ruminants including cattle, sheep, goats, camels and buffalo. Multiplexing diagnostic assays that can simultaneously detect antibodies against multiple RVFV antigens offer a high throughput test for disease surveillance and vaccine evaluations. We describe the improvement and evaluation of a previously developed fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against the RVFV glycoproteins (Gn) and the immunogenic nucleocapsid protein (Np). Well-characterized vaccinated and experimentally infected ruminant sera were used for the evaluation of the assay. Recombinant viral proteins were produced then coupled to polystyrene magnetic beads for analysis using the Luminex MAGPIXsystem with xMAP technology. The FMIA was performed in parallel with virus neutralization tests. Our results revealed the highest Median Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) values for the detection of IgG antibodies against RVFV Np, indicating that this antigen would be a good candidate for a screening assay. The Np and Gn targets could differentiate infected animals from animals vaccinated with a candidate subunit vaccine formulation based on the RVFV Gn and Gc proteins. The results presented in this report demonstrate that FMIA provides a rapid and robust serological diagnostic tool for the detection of antibodies against RVFV. The targets developed in this assay provide the basis for the development of a companion diagnostic test for a DIVA compliant RVFV Gn/Gc subunit vaccine, as well as a multiplex sero-diagnostic assay that can simultaneously screen for several ruminant diseases.
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Exploring differentially expressed genes related to metabolism by RNA-Seq in goat liver after dexamethasone treatment.Chronic stress severely threatens the welfare and health of animals and humans. In order to study the effects of chronic stress on metabolism, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to generate the expressed sequence tag dataset for the goat, using nextgeneration sequencing technology. For this study, consecutive dexamethasone (Dex) injection was used in 10 healthy male goats (body weight 25 ± 1.0 kg) to mimic chronic stress. Ten male goats were randomly assigned into two groups, one group was injected intramuscularly with the same volume of saline as control (Con) group, and another (Dex) group was injected intramuscularly with 0.2 mg/kg Dex for 21 days. To elucidate the resulting changes in genes, transcriptome profiling of liver was conducted by analysing samples from three goats of each group using RNA-Seq. A total of 137 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between Con group and Dex group. GO classification showed rhythmic process and hormone secretion in term cellular, and chemoattractant activity in term molecular function had noticeable differences in the proportion between DEGs and all genes. By mapping the DEGs to the COG database, we found that general function prediction only, energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism were the most frequently represented functional clusters. We mapped the unigenes to the KEGG pathway database and found most annotated genes were involved in the AMPK signalling pathway as well as pathways in cancer and insulin signalling pathway. Via KEGG enrichment analysis, we found the DEGs were significantly enriched in insulin signalling pathway, AMPK signalling pathway and adipocytokine signalling pathway. In addition, these pathways have close relationship with metabolism, which resulted in metabolic changes in which the identified DEGs may play important roles. These results provide valuable information for further research on the complex molecular mechanisms of dexamethasone in goats and will provide a foundation for future studies.
1573 related Products with: Exploring differentially expressed genes related to metabolism by RNA-Seq in goat liver after dexamethasone treatment.Recombinant Human Interfe Goat Anti-Human TOM1L1 SR Sterile filtered goat se Sterile filtered goat se Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Goat Anti- TRPM8, (intern Goat Anti- TFAP2D, (inter Goat Anti- T1R3, (interna Goat Anti-Human Synaptota
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MicroRNAs of Equine Amniotic Mesenchymal Cell-derived Microvesicles and Their Involvement in Anti-inflammatory Processes.Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) are a recently discovered mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Our previous data show that MVs secreted by equine amniotic mesenchymal-derived cells (AMCs) are involved in downregulation of proinflammatory genes in lipopolysaccharide-stressed equine tendon and endometrial cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AMC-MVs contain selected microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in inflammation. Two pools of cells, derived from 3 amniotic membranes each, and their respective MVs were collected. Small RNAs were extracted and deep sequenced, followed by miRNA in silico detection. The analysis identified 1,285 miRNAs, which were quantified both in AMCs and MVs. Among these miRNAs, 401 were classified as Equus caballus miRNAs, 257 were predicted by homology with other species (cow, sheep, and goat), and 627 were novel candidate miRNAs. Moreover, 146 miRNAs differentially expressed (DE) in AMCs and MVs were identified, 36 of which were known and the remaining were novel. Among the known DE miRNAs, 17 showed higher expression in MVs. Three of these were validated by real time polymerase chain reaction: eca-miR-26, eca-miR-146a, and eca-miR-223. Gene ontology analysis of validated targets showed that the DE miRNAs in cells and MVs could be involved both in immune system regulation by modulating interleukin signaling and in the inflammatory process. In conclusion, this study suggests a significant role of AMCs in modulating immune response through cell-cell communication via MV-shuttling miRNAs.
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Long-term effect of sheep and goat grazing on plant diversity in a semi-natural dry grassland habitat.Semi-natural dry grassland sites are of great importance for nature conservation because they support high species diversity and the abundance of "Red-List" species. Grazing has proved to be a successful management tool in terms of maintenance and restoration of biodiversity. For a deeper understanding of the effects of different grazers on species biodiversity in dry grasslands, it is necessary to study the long-term effects of major changes in grazing management. In a semi-natural dry grassland habitat, which was formerly grazed by cattle, we investigated the changes in plant species composition due to long term grazing by sheep and goats. Specifically we asked: a) How does long-term grazing by sheep and goats change the composition of all plant species and particularly those that are on the Red-List? Are changes caused mainly by species turnover? b) How does long-term grazing by sheep and goats influence the fertility and acidity of the soil? To address these questions, we compared the composition and diversity of plants as well deriving Ellenberg indicator values of the species. Long-term grazing by sheep and goats subsequent to a year-round cattle grazing changed the plant species composition of the dry grasslands resulting in a high species turnover rate. It did not, however, lead to an increase in plant species diversity even though Red-List species were considerably more abundant in 2013. Overall, the grazing regime studied positively influenced vegetation composition. The effects on local species composition due to species turnover might further be influenced by local factors like soil nitrogen availability.
1417 related Products with: Long-term effect of sheep and goat grazing on plant diversity in a semi-natural dry grassland habitat.Goat Anti-Human HMGB3 HMG Goat Anti-Human F2R PAR1, Goat Anti-Mouse APOBEC1, Incu Tissue(square vessel Goat Anti-Human Androgen Goat Anti-Human ABCE1 RNA Goat Anti-Human ACOX2, (i Goat Anti-Human AOC3, (in Goat Anti-Human APOA4, (i Goat Anti-Human Bruno-lik Goat Anti-Human CACNB4 (i Goat Anti-Human Cathepsin
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Effect of reduced glutathione supplementation on cryopreservation induced sperm cryoinjuries in Murrah bull semen.The experiment was conducted to study cryopreservation induced sperm cryoinjuries and the protective effect of reduced Glutathione supplementation in Murrah bull semen. A total of 20 semen ejaculates were split into two parts after initial examination and were extended in glycerolated egg yolk TRIS diluter (Control group) and glycerolated egg yolk TRIS diluter + 0.5 mM reduced Glutathione (Treatment Group). The diluted semen samples were loaded into 0.25 ml French mini straw and sealing of straws were done. Thereafter, semen straws were kept for equilibration for 4 h at 5 °C and semen was frozen using a standard cryopreservation protocol in automatic biological freezer. Post-thaw analysis was performed after 24 h of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Fresh and post-thaw sperm assessments included sperm motility, viability (SYBR-14/PI assay), mitochondrial function (JC-1/PI assay) and plasma membrane integrity (HOST). Cryopreservation of semen in liquid nitrogen induced a marked reduction in post-thaw sperm motility, viability, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity and increased moribund type of sperm (SYBR-14/PI assay) in control group as compared to reduced glutathione treated group. There were significant (P < 0.05) cryo injuries in frozen-thawed spermatozoa following cryopreservation in buffalo bull semen. The supplementation of reduced glutathione in treatment group exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower cryoinjuries during cryopreservation and semen storage in liquid nitrogen. From the study it was concluded that, spermatozoa from Murrah bulls are susceptible to injuries due to cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, but these cryo induced damage can be protected significantly (P < 0.05) by the use of reduced Glutathione.
2875 related Products with: Effect of reduced glutathione supplementation on cryopreservation induced sperm cryoinjuries in Murrah bull semen.Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Human Epstein-Barr Virus Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Reduced Glutathione (GSH) Mouse Epstein-Barr Virus TGF beta induced factor 2
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Supplementation with dry Mimosa caesalpiniifolia leaves can reduce the Haemonchus contortus worm burden of goats.Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) cause considerable economic losses in grazing goat herds. At present, GIN control cannot rely on conventional anthelmintic (AH) drugs because parasites have developed resistance against such drugs. Thus, alternative control methods are being sought to reduce the dependence on AH. Many tannin-rich plants exhibit AH activity and may be used as alternatives for GIN control. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a tannin-rich shrub consumed by small ruminants in Brazil. This study evaluated the in vivo AH effect of M. caesalpiniifolia leaf powder supplementation on GIN egg fecal excretion and worm burden in goats. Plant leaves were harvested, dried and ground to obtain a powder. Twenty-four castrated male goats, aged six to eight months, with a mean body weight of 15.0 ± 2.5 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were infected orally with 16,000 larvae comprising 50% Haemonchus spp., 41% Trichostrongylus spp. and 9% Oesophagostomum spp. Once the infection was patent, the goats were distributed into four groups of six animals. The control group received concentrate without condensed tannins (CTs) and did not receive any drench against GINs. The monepantel group received concentrate without CTs and were drenched once with monepantel. The other two groups received the M. caesalpiniifolia leaf powder in two periods of seven consecutive days (days 1-7 and 14-21), with one of the groups also receiving 10 g of polyethyleneglycol (PEG)/day. The animals were weighed weekly, and individual fecal eggs counts (FECs) were performed daily. After 28 days, the animals were humanly slaughtered, and the worm burden was estimated. Although live weight gain and FECs did not differ among the groups (P > 0.05), post-mortem worm counts showed a reduction in Haemonchus contortus adult worm burden (57.7%) in goats of the CT group compared to control goats (P < 0.05). The addition of PEG did not diminish AH activity in the CT + PEG group (66.9% reduction compared to the control). No AH effect against other GIN species was found. The result for the addition of PEG suggested that the observed AH activity was associated with plant secondary compounds, as opposed to CTs. As expected, no AH effect against Oesophagostomum columbianum was found for the monepantel group showed. Thus, feeding dry leaves of M. caesalpiniifolia represent a promising alternative for the control of GIN infections in goats.
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Safety and serologic response to a Haemonchus contortus vaccine in alpacas.Haemonchosis in camelids remains a challenging disease to treat, and prevention has become increasingly problematic due to widespread anthelmintic resistance. Barbervaxis an adjuvanted vaccine containing natural H-11, H-gal-GP antigens obtained from Haemonchus contortus adults via a proprietary process and solubilized in Quil A. This vaccine is approved for use in Australia, after demonstrating its safety and efficacy in sheep and goats. There are no published studies evaluating Barbervax in other ruminants/pseudoruminants such as camelids which can be parasitized with H. contortus. The vaccine utilizes a mixture of the parasite gut mucosal membrane enzymes including H-gal-GP and H11, involved in digesting a blood meal from the host. This study monitored the safety profile of the Barbervaxvaccine in a group of adolescent alpacas. Although designed into the original study of vaccine efficacy, the experimental infection with viable H. contortus third stage larvae could not be completed due to lack of detectable significant variation of infection following experimental challenge. Twelve alpacas (158 + 15 days) were randomized to vaccination with Barbervaxor no treatment. Three doses of Barbervaxwere administered at 3 week intervals and investigators involved in animal monitoring and sample collection were blinded to the groupings. Clinical pathologic parameters were evaluated 7 days before vaccination, and 1 and 2 months post-vaccination. Daily clinical observations were made and specific observations regarding the injection site and rectal temperatures were monitored in each alpaca twice daily for 1 week following vaccination. Fecal egg counts, packed cell volume, and total protein were monitored following challenge with 1500 H. contortus larvae on days 42, 46, and 50. An increase in rectal temperature for a duration of 2 days (range 2-4 days) was observed post-vaccination. Vaccinated alpacas were lethargic for 2-3 days following vaccination; however, they maintained an appetite and no visible or palpable injection site reactions were observed. Following the first vaccination, all animals maintained normal clinical pathologic parameters throughout the study period. The vaccinated animals did develop titers to the H. contortus antigen as measured by ELISA. In conclusion, the Barbervaxvaccine demonstrated safety in this small group of young, healthy alpacas, but additional studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine under field conditions in protecting alpacas against infection with H. contortus.
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