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#28931369   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Acute HIV infection presenting as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: case report and review of the literature.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an uncommon systemic inflammatory condition that can result from infections, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. It is a rarely reported life threatening complication of an acute HIV infection, with only ten documented case reports per our literature search. We present a case of HLH secondary to acute HIV infection with a negative HIV antibody-based assay and high plasma viral load.

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#28927317   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

Worse renal outcome of subclass IV-G lupus nephritis patients over IV-S.

Background International Society of Nephrology/ Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) consensus on the classification of lupus nephritis (LN) subdivided class IV into diffuse segmental (IV-S) and diffuse global (IV-G). Nephrologists and nephropathologists believe that this subclassification would be clinically relevant based on hypothetical distinct immunopathogenesis of those subclasses guiding therapy as well as judging prognosis. Methods All adult patients with a renal biopsy-confirmed diagnosis of LN class IV undergoing regular follow-up in the Nephrology Division between January 2004 and December 2014 were enrolled excluding those with diabetes, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV as well as those with insufficient clinical and hystopathological data. Biopsies were reviewed and reclassified according to ISN/RPS 2003 classification by two experienced pathologists and were examined by light microscopy and direct immunofluorescence. Results On baseline subclass IV-G compared to IV-S showed higher frequency of males and histologically higher activity (7.5 ± 2.8 vs 5.1 ± 2.3, p = 0.004) and chronicity index (3.4 ± 1.6 vs 2.4 ± 1.8, p = 0.016) as well as a higher percentage of epithelial crescents (12.9 vs 5.1, p = 0.0001) and vessel abnormalities (72% vs 42%, p = 0.017). Although renal function on baseline was not different between subclasses, IV-G showed lower levels, although not significant, of estimated glomerular filtration based on CKD-EPI formula (91.0 ± 34.8 vs 64.4 ± 44.5, p = 0.059) at the end of follow-up. In addition, we observed a higher rate of patients reaching CKD-EPI under 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in subclass IV-G over IV-S on last follow-up. Conclusion Subclasses IV-S and IV-G patients show some clinical and pathological differences that might represent distinct stages of the same disease and they should thus be treated the same.

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#28893741   2017/09/12 Save this To Up

Prevention and assessment of infectious diseases among children and adult migrants arriving to the European Union/European Economic Association: a protocol for a suite of systematic reviews for public health and health systems.

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis.

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#28893550   2017/09/12 Save this To Up

Specificity of two HIV screening tests detecting simultaneously HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 and -2.

This study aimed at assessing the specificity of the Elecsys(®) HIV combi PT in comparison to the ARCHITECT(®) HIV Ag/Ab Combo. With both of these assays, 3997 unselected sera from patients of a tertiary health care centre in Basel, Switzerland, were screened for HIV. Reactive sera were reanalysed on the VIDAS(®) HIV Duo Ultra to identify false-reactive specimens prior to confirmation by quantitative PCR and line immunoassay. The Elecsys(®) compared to the ARCHITECT(®) shows a similar specificity (99.7% versus 99.8%) but a slightly lower positive predictive value (71.8% versus 80%). Samples tested with a cut-off index (COI) between 0.91 and 4.85 (cut-off <0.9) with the Elecsys(®) and with a signal to cut-off index (S/CO) between 1.09 and 12.49 (cut-off <1.0) with the ARCHITECT(®) were false-reactive. There was no false-reactive result with the VIDAS(®). Of the false-reactive samples, 66.7% could be related to patient-specific underlying conditions. The HIV two-tiered diagnostic algorithm proposed in this work improved the positive predictive values of the Elecsys(®) or ARCHITECT(®) to 100% when the results of the VIDAS(®) were included. Values just above the cut-off are highly suspicious to be false-reactive and high COI or S/CO ratios are associated with true positivity.

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#28872273   2017/09/05 Save this To Up

Identification of misdiagnosed HIV clients in an Early Access to ART for All implementation study in Swaziland.

Rapid diagnostic testing has made HIV diagnosis and subsequent treatment more accessible. However, multiple factors, including improper implementation of testing strategies and clerical errors, have been reported to lead to HIV misdiagnosis. The World Health Organization has recommended HIV retesting prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation which has become pertinent with scaling up of Early Access to ART for All (EAAA). In this analysis, misdiagnosed clients are identified from a subgroup of clients enrolled in EAAA implementation study in Swaziland.

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#28856068   2017/08/31 Save this To Up

Sero-diagnosis of Active Mycobacterium tuberculosis Disease among HIV Co-infected Persons using Thymidylate Kinase based Antigen and Antibody Capture Enzyme Immuno-Assays.

Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis (ATB) and latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections (LTBI) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) presents formidable challenges. In the past, WHO issued an advisory against the use of existing TB sero-diagnostics. Emerging evidence, however, points to a precision of TB sero-diagnostics based on secretory rather than structural M. tuberculosis antigens. We hypothesized that secretory levels of M. tuberculosis thymidylate kinase (TMKmt) can Designate ATBI from LTBI and no TB (NTB). Here, we report in-house validation studies of levels of TMKmt antigen (Ag) and host specific TMKmt antibody (Ab) amongst HIV +ve and HIV -ve participants.

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#28840524   2017/08/25 Save this To Up

Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in Hungarian Men Who Have Sex with Men.

Anal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in non-AIDS defining cancers. Most of these cancers are associated with high risk HPV infection. So far, the prevalence and the significance of anal HPV infection have not been studied in the Hungarian MSM population. The main objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HPV-infection in the Hungarian MSM community, particularly in HIV-infected MSM. Out of 109 examinations 92 samples (80 HIV-infected and 12 HIV-negative MSM) were evaluated for both cytological abnormalities and HPV genotyping PCR. Using a questionnaire all enrolled individuals were interviewed about their sexual behavior, socioeconomic factors, drug use and other known or suspected risk factors. In the HIV-infected cohort 97.5% of the examined individuals were positive for any HPV type. In this group we detected high risk (HR) HPV in 88.8%, low risk (LR) HPV in 75.0% and probably high risk (PHR) HPV in 47.5% and multiple HPV infection was absolutely common (82.5%). In the HIV-negative MSM group the incidence of HPV-infection was 58.3%. The respective rate of HR-HPV, LR-HPV and PHR-HPV genotypes were 33.3%, 58.4%, and 16.7%. In the HIV-negative group both HPV infection frequency and the prevalence of the pertinent genotypes were much lower. The Hungarian MSM population is severely infected with HPV and HR-HPV. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong predictors for acquiring HR-HPV co-infections. Our results underline the necessity of anal cancer screening and the introduction of the vaccination program in the high-risk population.

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#28835533   2017/08/24 Save this To Up

A phase II clinical study to assess the feasibility of self and partner anal examinations to detect anal canal abnormalities including anal cancer.

Anal cancer is a common cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is no standard screening protocol for anal cancer. We conducted a phase II clinical trial to assess the feasibility of teaching MSM to recognise palpable masses in the anal canal which is a common sign of anal cancer in men.

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#28832288   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Is laboratory screening prior to antiretroviral treatment useful in Johannesburg, South Africa? Baseline findings of a clinical trial.

Screening for renal, hepatic and haematological disorders complicates the initiation of current first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Each additional test done adds substantial costs, both through direct laboratory expenses, but also by increasing the burden on health workers and patients. Evaluating the prevalence of clinically relevant abnormalities in different population groups could guide decisions about what tests to recommend in national guidelines, or in local adaptations of these.

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#28820347   2017/08/18 Save this To Up

Association between eye diagnosis and positive syphilis test results in a large, urban sexually transmitted infection/primary care clinic population.

In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) released clinical advisories on rising cases of ocular syphilis. We examined the association between eye disease and syphilis infection among primary care and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients attending an urban lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health center. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients who underwent syphilis testing at Howard Brown Health between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015. Confirmed eye diagnosis was based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes for conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, retinitis, and red eye. Demographic information, syphilis treatment, HIV status, and high-risk behaviors were abstracted. Syphilis diagnosis was defined by available laboratory data (enzyme immunoassay [EIA], rapid plasma reagin [RPR] titer, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption [FTA-Abs], Treponema pallidum Ab). Multivariable logistic regression with robust variance was used to identify independent associations. During the study period, 71,299 syphilis tests were performed on 30,422 patients. There were 2288 (3.2%) positive syphilis tests. Seventy-seven patients had a confirmed eye diagnosis (0.25%). Patients with eye disease had higher probability of at least one positive syphilis test (33%) compared to those without eye disease (8%) ( p < 0.01). Of patients with eye disease, 77% were men who had sex with men (MSM) and 65% were HIV-positive. Patients with eye disease had 5.97 (95% CI: 3.70, 9.63) higher odds of having syphilis compared to patients without eye disease. When adjusted for age, race, gender/sexual orientation, insurance status, and HIV status, this association between positive syphilis test and eye disease decreased but was still significant (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.17, 3.41). Patients who present with an eye diagnosis to STI/primary care clinic have a higher probability of positive syphilis tests even after adjusting for other risk factors for syphilis. High-risk patients with eye symptoms should have routine STI testing and in keeping with CDC and AAO recommendations, full ophthalmologic examination.

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