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#28432479   2017/04/22 Save this To Up

Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of an ivermectin implant for long-term prevention of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs.

An exploratory study was carried out to assess the in vivo efficacy of different prototypes of subcutaneous implants containing ivermectin (IVM) for the prevention of canine Dirofilaria immitis infection. The implants consisted of an ethylcellulose matrix containing IVM (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 mg/implant; from 0.29 to 0.63 mg/kg bw) as active ingredient designed to release approximately 0.1 ng of IVM/mL in the plasma for at least 12 months. Six dogs were implanted on day -365. On day -12, three heartworm-free dogs were included in the study as a control group. All nine dogs were examined on day -7 and day 0 for circulating D. immitis microfilariae and by an antigen ELISA kit to confirm that the dogs were heartworm-free. The dogs were artificially infected with 75 D. immitis infective larvae (L3) each on day 0. Dogs in the control group were humanely euthanized on day 153 to verify the infectivity of the larvae, while implanted dogs were further examined for circulating D. immitis microfilariae and antigen on days 153, 195, and 246. The treated dogs were not necropsied. The pharmacokinetic profile of the IVM implant was assessed in plasma samples taken on day -364, then at different times until the infection day, and again on days, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 153. Throughout the study, body weights were measured during clinical examination on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 153. At necropsy, all control dogs were found infected, each with 10-11 adult heartworms. Implanted dogs were negative at both microfilaria and D. immitis antigen examinations until day 246 (8 months from the infection). IVM plasma levels ranged 0.06-0.16 ng/mL on day 0 and remained stable until day 60, afterward they gradually decreased under the limit of quantification of the method. Throughout the study, no side effect was observed. On the basis of these results, it was possible to conclude that the different prototypes of implants were able to protect the dogs from D. immitis artificial infection for at least 12 months.

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#27047976   2016/04/06 Save this To Up

Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India.

The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India.

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#26152415   2015/07/16 Save this To Up

Combined Serological Detection of Circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum Antigen and Parasite-specific Antibodies in Dogs from Hungary.

The occurrence of the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, also known as the French heartworm, is increasingly being reported from various European countries. The adults of this parasite species live in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of wild canids and domestic dogs. Larval stages and eggs in the lungs induce inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. Furthermore, haematological and neurological signs and even death may occur. In Hungary, A. vasorum has been identified in red foxes, golden jackals and in two dogs and some slugs. In this first large-scale survey, 1247 sera from pet dogs were collected and tested by an ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of A. vasorum and by a separate ELISA to detect specific antibodies against the parasite. A total of 1.36% (n = 17, 95 % confidence intervals, CI: 0.80 - 2.17 %) of the animals were positive in both ELISAs, while 1.76 % (n = 22, CI: 1.11 - 2.66 %) of the tested dogs were antigen-positive only and 2.73 % (n = 34, CI: 1.90 - 3.79 %) were positive for specific antibodies only. Regions with antigen- and antibody-positive animals overlapped and were distributed over nearly the whole sampled areas of the country. A considerable number of cases was observed in Budapest and also in the southern part of the country bordering Croatia, while in the most eastern part bordering Ukraine no positive samples were detected. These results confirm the endemic occurrence of A. vasorum in dogs originating from different parts of Hungary and the significant advantages of A. vasorum serology in epidemiological studies.

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#25387458   2015/04/28 Save this To Up

First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown.

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#25218886   2014/12/08 Save this To Up

Experimental Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs: effects of doxycycline and Advantage Multi® administration on immature adult parasites.

To better understand the efficacy of doxycycline and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (Advantage Multi(®); Bayer Animal Health, Shawnee Mission, Kansas) on immature adult Dirofilaria immitis parasites and the results of antigen tests, 12 healthy, randomly selected dogs were experimentally infected with D. immitis and monitored for 407 days. Two dogs in each of three subgroups of four dogs were each infected with six (total of 6 dogs) or 12 (total of 6 dogs) D. immitis infective third-stage larvae (L3) obtained from infected mosquitoes. Doxycycline (10mg/kg per os twice daily×30 days) and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (1ml/kg by topical application every 30 days) treatment was initiated at 105 (Group A) and 149 (Group B) days post infection (PI) in two groups. One subgroup of two dogs given 6 L3 and one subgroup of two dogs given 12 L3 remained as untreated controls (GroupC). Serum obtained regularly throughout the study was evaluated by ELISA (PetChek(®) Heartworm-PF Antigen Test, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.) for D. immitis adult circulating antigens. Six of the eight dogs in the treated groups had detectable antigenemia starting between 148 and 240 days post infection, but antigen was not detected in any treated dog at the end of the study. In the control subgroups, the dogs that received 6 L3 had no detectable antigen while the two dogs that received 12 L3 had detectable antigen beginning on Day 180 that persisted until the end of the study. None of the infected dogs had evidence of circulating microfilariae. At necropsy, no heartworms were recovered from the treated dogs, but all dogs in the untreated group had viable adult heartworms. These results indicate that early immature adult worms (3.5 and 5 months of age) of D. immitis were susceptible to a combined treatment regimen of doxycycline and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin.

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#24941391   2014/06/19 Save this To Up

Performance of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia ewingii and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs.

To evaluate the performance of an in-clinic ELISA designed for detection of heartworm antigen and antibodies against 5 tick-borne pathogens.

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#24534524   2014/02/18 Save this To Up

Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal.

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area.

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#23227768   2012/12/11 Save this To Up

Serological screening of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infections in Turkey.

This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of canine dirofilariosis in ten provinces of Turkey using antigen ELISA. A total of 317 blood samples were collected from 199 male and 118 female dogs between 2010 and 2011. 27 (8.5%) of 317 dog samples were positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigen by ELISA. No differences in seroprevalence were observed by sex (male: 9%; female: 8%; p > 0.05). Seroprevalence rates were the highest in Afyonkarahisar province (18%), followed by Eskişehir (15%), Nevşehir (14%), Aksaray (12%), Kars (10%), Malatya (9%), Niğde (4%), Mersin (3%) and Konya (2%) provinces. No positive results were obtained in Ankara province. The differences in seroprevalence of Afyonkarahisar, Eskişehir, Ankara, Konya and Mersin was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The seroprevalence of D. immitis infection varied with age. The highest seroprevalence was observed in dogs older than five years of age (the risk of infection increases with age).

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#23148786   2012/11/22 Save this To Up

Cross-reactions of sera from dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in commercially available Dirofilaria immitis test kits.

Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are both important potentially fatal canine nematodes with overlapping endemic areas, especially in Europe. The preadult and adult stages of both species are living in the Arteria pulmonalis and the right heart, and diagnostically detectable circulating parasite antigens have been demonstrated for both species. For the detection of D. immitis infections, a variety of commercial tests have been developed, however, they have not been evaluated for cross-reactions against circulating antigens of A. vasorum.

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#22050927   2012/01/30 Save this To Up

Excretory/secretory antigens from Dirofilaria immitis adult worms interact with the host fibrinolytic system involving the vascular endothelium.

Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of canine and feline heartworm disease. The parasite can survive for long periods of time (7 years or more) in the circulatory system of immunocompetent reservoirs, producing usually a chronic inflammatory vascular disease. In addition, the simultaneous death of groups of adult worms can trigger an acute disease characterized by the exacerbation of inflammatory reactions and the emergence of serious thromboembolic events. In the context of the D. immitis/host relationships, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between the excretory/secretory antigens from D. immitis adult worms (DiES) and the fibrinolytic system of the host. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we showed that DiES extract is able to bind plasminogen and generate plasmin, although this fact requires the presence of the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Moreover, we established that DiES extract enhances t-PA expression in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Additionally, 10 plasminogen-binding proteins from DiES extract were identified by mass spectrometry (HSP60, actin-1/3, actin, actin 4, transglutaminase, GAPDH, Ov87, LOAG_14743, galectin and P22U). The data suggest that DiES antigens interact with the environment of the parasite regulating the activation of the fibrinolytic system of the host with involvement of the vascular endothelium in the process.

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