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Screening and identification of immunoactive FlaB protein fragments of Treponema pallidum for the serodiagnosis of syphilis.

Flagellin is a classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern that can evoke a robust immune response. We have demonstrated previously that three full-length flagellins of Treponema pallidum, namely FlaB1, FlaB2 and FlaB3, did have diagnostic value in the serodiagnosis of syphilis. Here, we selected and constructed three recombinant fragments of each complete FlaB, both the conserved N-terminal and the C-terminal region, and the middle variable part, with the goal of exploring fragments unique to Treponema pallidum for use as antigen targets in a fragment-based serological test. The diagnostic performance of fragments was evaluated using different panels of serum specimens (= 332) by indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data showed that all the conserved fragments exhibited excellent sensitivities (91.1-95.0%) but poor specificities (64.1-78.4%), while the three middle regions demonstrated higher sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 92.7% and 96.1% for FlaB1M ('B1M'), 91.6% and 94.8% for B2M, and 95.0% and 100% for B3M, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP was found to be 95.5% and 94.8%, respectively. These findings revealed that the middle portion of each FlaB had epitopes specific for Treponema pallidum and identified B3M as a promising candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of syphilis.

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Protein,Treponema pallidu Treponema Pallidum (Syphi Treponema Pallidum (Syphi Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Recombinant T. pallidum ( T. pallidum (Syphilis) Tm Bone Morphogenetic Protei Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant T. pallidum p Recombinant T. pallidum p

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Levels of cystatin C in low- and high-flux hemodialysis in children with end-stage renal disease.

Cystatin-C (CyC) is a middle molecule that is freely filtered at the glomerulus and almost completely reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum CyC and its reduction ratio as a biomarker for assessing the adequacy of the hemodialysis (HD) sessions in children with end-stage renal disease on maintenance HD. We also compared levels of CyC in patients on low-flux HD (LFH) and high-flux HD (HFH).

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Human epithelial-type ovarian tumour marker beta-2-microglobulin is regulated by the TGF-β signaling pathway.

Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), a light chain subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I complex, has been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, whether it is expressed in different epithelial-type ovarian tumours remains unknown. This study was performed to examine the expression of B2M in different histopathological types of ovarian tumours, to explore the function of B2M in ovarian cancer (OC) cells and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway.

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C-reactive protein, Neopterin and Beta2 microglobulin levels pre and post TB treatment in The Gambia.

Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Analysis of the host immune response may help with generating point-of-care tests for personalised monitoring. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between immune activation markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), Beta2 microglobulin (B2M) and Neopterin, disease severity prior to treatment and response to therapy in adult pulmonary TB patients.

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Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice.

Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs.

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Autophagy-independent senescence and genome instability driven by targeted telomere dysfunction.

Telomere dysfunction plays a complex role in tumorigenesis. While dysfunctional telomeres can block the proliferation of incipient cancer clones by inducing replicative senescence, fusion of dysfunctional telomeres can drive genome instability and oncogenic genomic rearrangements. Therefore, it is important to define the regulatory pathways that guide these opposing effects. Recent work has shown that the autophagy pathway regulates both senescence and genome instability in various contexts. Here, we apply models of acute telomere dysfunction to determine whether autophagy modulates the resulting genome instability and senescence responses. While telomere dysfunction rapidly induces autophagic flux in human fibroblast cell lines, inhibition of the autophagy pathway does not have a significant impact upon the transition to senescence, in contrast to what has previously been reported for oncogene-induced senescence. Our results suggest that this difference may be explained by disparities in the development of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. We also show that chromosome fusions induced by telomere dysfunction are comparable in autophagy-proficient and autophagy-deficient cells. Altogether, our results highlight the complexity of the senescence-autophagy interface and indicate that autophagy induction is unlikely to play a significant role in telomere dysfunction-driven senescence and chromosome fusions.

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β2-Microglobulin deficiency causes a complex immunodeficiency of the innate and adaptive immune system.

Most patients with MHC class I (MHC-I) deficiency carry genetic defects in transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) or TAP2. The clinical presentation can vary, and about half of the patients have severe skin disease. Previously, one report described β2-microglobulin (β2m) deficiency as another monogenetic cause of MHC-I deficiency, but no further immunologic evaluation was performed.

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Circulating levels of soluble Fas ligand reflect disease progression in multiple myeloma.

Multiple myeloma (MM) plasma cells are apoptosis resistant. The system of Fas with its ligand (Fas-L) participates actively in the extrinsic apoptotic system. In oncology, its role is controversial, since it has been reported both to suppress and promote tumor growth. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of soluble Fas-L (sFas-L) in patients with active MM and to correlate them with markers of disease activity. We studied 57 patients with active MM, along with 22 healthy controls. We measured serum levels of sFas-L and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, as well of beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We also measured the degree of bone marrow infiltration. All parameters were increased in patients, compared with controls (p < 0.001 for all cases) and also in parallel with disease stage (p < 0.001 for all cases). Positive correlations were noted between serum levels of sFas-L with IL-6, infiltration (p < 0.001 for both cases) and LDH (p < 0.04), but not with CRP and B2M. We suggest that the system of Fas/Fas-L participates actively in MM progression in a complex manner and that serum levels of sFas-L may reflect disease progression. Further studies are needed to determine its usefulness as a marker of disease activity.

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Evaluation of beta-2 microglobulin and alpha-2 macroglobulin levels in patients with different periodontal diseases.

Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) and alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) play key roles in the immune system. The aim of this study was to compare B2M and A2M levels in patients with different periodontal diseases.

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Closing the gap: discrimination of the expression profile of HLA questionable alleles by a cytokine-induced secretion approach using HLA-A*32:11Q.

Matching of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles between donors and recipients plays a major role in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Null or questionably expressed HLA allelic variants are a major issue in HLA matching, because the aberrant expression of such alleles can have a major impact on the outcome of HSCT and/or its complications such as graft-versus-host disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of a recently developed cytokine-induced secretion assay to differentiate the expression levels of HLA-A*32:11Q (questionable) into a null (N) or low (L) expression variant. An amino acid mutation at position 164 of HLA-A*32:11Q disrupts the disulfide bridge in the α2 domain. HLA-A*32:11Q is not detectable by standard microlymphocytotoxicity assay. To this end, we cloned soluble HLA-A*32:11Q and a reference allele (HLA-A*32:01) into expression vectors and transfected/transduced HEK293 and K562 cells. Allele-expressing K562 cells were simultaneously transfected/transduced with a β2-microglobulin (B2M)-encoding vector to ensure the intact HLA structure with B2M. After treatment with proinflammatory cytokines, secreted soluble HLA molecules were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the supernatant and intracellular accumulation of the recombinant proteins by flow cytometry. HLA-A*32:11Q was nearly undetectable in untreated transfectants. Cytokine treatment increased the secretion of HLA-A*32:11Q to detectable levels and resulted in intracellular accumulation of the allele. There was no difference in mRNA transcription between the A*32 alleles. On the basis of these results, we recommend reclassification of HLA-A*32:11Q as a low expression (L) variant.

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