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#29024003   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

Molecular characterization of the llama FGF5 gene and identification of putative loss of function mutations.

Llama, the most numerous domestic camelid in Argentina, has good fiber-production ability. Although a few genes related to other productive traits have been characterized, the molecular genetic basis of fiber growth control in camelids is still poorly understood. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein that controls hair growth in humans and other mammals. Mutations in the FGF5 gene have been associated with long-hair phenotypes in several species. Here, we sequenced the llama FGF5 gene, which consists of three exons encoding 813 bp. cDNA analysis from hair follicles revealed the expression of two FGF5 alternative spliced transcripts, in one of which exon 2 is absent. DNA variation analysis showed four polymorphisms in the coding region: a synonymous SNP (c.210A>G), a single base deletion (c.348delA), a 12-bp insertion (c.351_352insCATATAACATAG) and a non-sense mutation (c.499C>T). The deletion was always found together with the insertion forming a haplotype and producing a putative truncated protein of 123 amino acids. The c.499C>T mutation also leads to a premature stop codon at position 168. In both cases, critical functional domains of FGF5, including one heparin binding site, are lost. All animals analyzed were homozygous for one of the deleterious mutations or compound heterozygous for both (i.e. c.348delA, c.351_352insCATATAACATAG/c.499T). Sequencing of guanaco samples showed that the FGF5 gene encodes a full-length 270-amino acid protein. These results suggest that FGF5 is likely functional in short-haired wild species and non-functional in the domestic fiber-producing species, the llama.

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#28977836   2017/10/05 Save this To Up

Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the neuroprotective effect of aFGF in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury.

Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models and human patients. In this study, we investigated whether aFGF intranasal-treatment protected against neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and evaluated the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress. The Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury was used in 7-day-old rats, which were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia. Intranasal aFGF or vehicle was administered immediately after hypoxic-ischaemic injury (100 ng/g) and then twice a day for 1 week to evaluate the long-term effects. Here we reported that intranasal-treatment with aFGF significantly reduced hypoxic-ischaemic brain infarct volumes and the protective effects were at least partially via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, aFGF exerted long-term neuroprotective effects against brain atrophy and neuron loss at 7-day after injury. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies targeting endoplasmic reticulum stress may be promising to the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury.

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#28973331   2017/10/03 Save this To Up

The Role of Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap in Macular Hole Closure.

To investigate the mechanism of macular hole (MH) closure following the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) technique.

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#28872123   2017/09/05 Save this To Up

Ileectomy-induced Bile Overaccumulation in Mouse Intestine.

Intestinal resection is a common therapeutic approach for human diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer that often results in severe short bowel syndrome-like adverse effects including bile acid diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and nutrient malabsorption. Here we introduce a murine ileal resection model, termed ileectomy, to evaluate tissue communication and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. After ileal resection, circulating blood is permanently devoid of the ileum-specific endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which releases its endocrinal inhibition of bile acid synthesis in the liver. In combination with the increased production and abolished reabsorption of bile acids after removing the ileum, mice that underwent surgery suffer from bile salt overaccumulation in the intestine and associated diarrhea, morbidity, and mortality. Novel usage of the surgery model introduced in this study may provide mechanistic and functional insights into ileal control of systemic metabolic regulation in physiology and disease.

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#28870477   2017/09/05 Save this To Up

A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet.

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#28859966   2017/09/01 Save this To Up

Relative distribution and biological characterization of CXCL4L1 isoforms in platelets from healthy donors.

CXCL4L1, a platelet-derived ELR-negative CXC chemokine, is a powerful angiostatic and anti-tumoral chemokine. We developed a mass spectrometric assay for the detection of different natural CXCL4L1 isoforms. Using this assay, we identified 4 different CXCL4L1 isoforms in the supernatant of thrombin-stimulated platelets from healthy volunteers: the classical isoform CXCL4L1(1-70), CXCL4L1(-4-70), which probably arises through alternative signal peptide removal and two COOH-terminally truncated isoforms CXCL4L1(1-69) and CXCL4L1(-4-69). CXCL4L1(1-70) was the most abundant isoform, whereas CXCL4L1(-4-70) was detected in 50% of the platelet preparations. Since alterations to the NH2-terminus of chemokines can have severe biological consequences, we investigated the impact of the extension with 4 NH2-terminal amino acids on the biological activity of CXCL4L1. In vitro, CXCL4L1(-4-70) was as potent as CXCL4L1(1-70) in inhibiting signal transduction and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells towards vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). In a FITC-conjugated dextran cell permeability assay, both splice variants showed a strong but comparable anti-permeable effect upon VEGF stimulation of the endothelial cell monolayer. In vivo angiogenesis induced by FGF-2 was equally reduced by CXCL4L1(1-70) and CXCL4L1(-4-70). In chemotaxis assays with CXCR3A-transfected cells the CXCL4L1 isoforms both induced migration from 125ng/ml onward. Finally, CXCL4L1(1-70) and CXCL4L1(-4-70) showed the same affinity for heparin. In conclusion, the investigated biological activities of CXCL4L1 are not influenced by the four extra NH2-terminal residues present in the alternatively spliced isoform CXCL4L1(-4-70). Therefore, our results suggest that both isoforms equally interact with the CXCR3A and CXCR3B receptor.

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#28805978   2017/08/14 Save this To Up

Obeticholic acid, a selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, regulates bile acid homeostasis in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes.

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a master regulator of bile acid homeostasis through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and cellular membrane transport. Impairment of bile acid efflux due to cholangiopathies results in chronic cholestasis leading to abnormal elevation of intrahepatic and systemic bile acid levels. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent and selective FXR agonist that is 100-fold more potent than the endogenous ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). The effects of OCA on genes involved in bile acid homeostasis were investigated using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes. Gene expression was determined by measuring mRNA levels. OCA dose-dependently increased fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) which, in turn, suppress mRNA levels of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo synthesis of bile acids. Consistent with CYP7A1 suppression, total bile acid content was decreased by OCA (1 μmol/L) to 42.7 ± 20.5% relative to control. In addition to suppressing de novo bile acids synthesis, OCA significantly increased the mRNA levels of transporters involved in bile acid homeostasis. The bile salt excretory pump (BSEP), a canalicular efflux transporter, increased by 6.4 ± 0.8-fold, and the basolateral efflux heterodimer transporters, organic solute transporter α (OSTα ) and OSTβ increased by 6.4 ± 0.2-fold and 42.9 ± 7.9-fold, respectively. The upregulation of BSEP and OSTα and OSTβ, by OCA reduced the intracellular concentrations of d8 -TCA, a model bile acid, to 39.6 ± 8.9% relative to control. These data demonstrate that OCA does suppress bile acid synthesis and reduce hepatocellular bile acid levels, supporting the use of OCA to treat bile acid-induced toxicity observed in cholestatic diseases.

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#28803689   2017/08/14 Save this To Up

Sun exposure influences the prognostic power of components of mineral metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease.

Calcidiol (vitamin D metabolite) plasma levels vary with sun exposure (SE). However, it is not known if SE influences its prognostic ability. We have studied the effect of SE on plasma levels of the components of mineral metabolism (calcidiol, fibroblast growth factor-23 [FGF-23], parathormone [PTH], and phosphate [P]) and on their prognostic value in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

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#28768285   2017/08/02 Save this To Up

Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy by Modified Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor.

Oxidative stress (OS) contributes to all chronic diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) has shown to confer protection from OS. However, it also has potent angiogenic activity. We hypothesized that a modified human aFGF (maFGF), with antioxidant properties but devoid of angiogenic activity, has preventative action in DN.

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#28752051   2017/07/28 Save this To Up

Repletion of branched chain amino acids reverses mTORC1 signaling but not improved metabolism during dietary protein dilution.

Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance. We tested whether replenishment of dietary BCAAs to an AA-diluted (AAD) diet is sufficient to reverse the glucoregulatory benefits of dietary PD.

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