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#23624779   2013/06/18 Save this To Up

High plasma-GFAP levels in metastatic myxopapillary ependymoma.

Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare tumor of the distal spinal cord. Despite benign histopathology, local recurrences occur in ~30 % of patients and distant metastases have been described in few cases. MPE tumor cells typically express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which could be released to the circulation. In this current report, we investigated circulating plasma-GFAP in a series of MPE patients. We analyzed circulating plasma-GFAP using a commercially available ELISA kit in 3 patients with completely resected MPE, 1 patient with locally advanced MPE and 2 patients with pleuropulmonary metastases of MPE. As controls we used blood samples of age and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 3), 6 glioblastoma patients with known plasma-GFAP status (positive for 3 and negative for 3 patients) and 3 brain metastases patients with known plasma-GFAP negativity. We found very high concentrations of plasma-GFAP in two MPE patients with pleuropulmonary metastases, while in none of the other MPE patients circulating plasma-GFAP was detectable. Circulating GFAP could be useful as marker for early detection or follow-up of distant metastases in MPE patients.

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#23470323   2013/08/01 Save this To Up

Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein as a diagnostic biomarker in dogs with progressive myelomalacia.

In humans, increased levels of GFAP in the CSF and blood have been reported with various neural diseases. However, there has been no study describing the usefulness of GFAP in the blood for disease of the spinal cord in dogs. The aim of this study was to describe the utility of GFAP in serum for a diagnosis of progressive myelomalacia. Fifty-six dogs with acute thoracolumbar IVDD diagnosed by computed tomography with myelography or MRI were included. Serum specimens were collected at initial presentation from all cases and at follow-up examinations from some cases. Serum samples were assayed for GFAP concentrations using a commercially available GFAP ELISA Kit. Progressive myelomalacia was the final diagnosis in 8/51 cases (15.6%). Eight dogs had clinical signs suggestive of progressive myelomalacia, of which 6 were positive and 2 were negative by GFAP. Seven dogs had a detectable level of serum GFAP, of which 6 had the onset of progressive myelomalacia. The sensitivity and specificity of the GFAP to progressive myelomalacia were 75% and 97.7%, respectively. The results suggest the utility of GFAP in serum in the diagnosis of progressive myelomalacia.

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#15093735   2004/04/19 Save this To Up

Umbilical cord blood stem cells can expand hematopoietic and neuroglial progenitors in vitro.

The ability of hematopoietic tissue-derived adult stem cells to transdifferentiate into neural progenitor cells offers an interesting alternative to central nervous system (CNS)- or embryonic-derived stem cells as a viable source for cellular therapies applied to brain regeneration. Umbilical cord blood (CB) due to its primitive nature and it unproblematic collection appears as a promising candidate for multipotent stem cell harvest. We developed a negative immunomagnetic selection method that depletes CB from hematopoietic lineage marker-expressing cells, hence isolating a discrete lineage negative (LinNeg) stem cell population (0.1% of CB mononucleated cell [MCN] population). In liquid culture supplemented with thrombopoietin, flt-3 ligand, and c-kit ligand (TPOFLK), CB LinNeg stem cells could expand primitive nonadherent hematopoietic progenitors (up to 47-fold) and simultaneously produce slow-dividing adherent cells with neuroglial progenitor cell morphology over 8 weeks. Laser scanning confocal microscopy analysis identified these adherent cells to express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of primitive neuroglial progenitor cell markers including, GFAP, nestin, musashi-1, and necdin. ELISA quantification of liquid culture supernatant revealed the in vitro release of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta1), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) suggesting their contribution to CB LinNeg stem cell transdifferentiation into neuroglial progenitors. Our study supports that a single CB specimen can be pre-expanded in TPOFLK to produce both primitive hematopoietic and neuropoietic progenitors, hence widening CB clinical potential for cellular therapies.

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#1474847   1993/02/01 Save this To Up

A sensitive ELISA for glial fibrillary acidic protein: application in CSF of children.

In the present study we describe a sensitive ELISA for determination of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). To validate the method combined determinations of GFAP and S-100 protein were performed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal children and children with autism. The GFAP ELISA is of sandwich type and uses the biotin-avidin system. Sensitivity was 16 pg/ml. Between-day precision was 0.079 (coeff. of variance). S-100 protein concentrations were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Normal CSF from children and young adults were analysed. The CSF levels of GFAP in normal children were low (16-163 pg/ml). Both GFAP and S-100 protein concentrations correlated with age (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), but the GFAP increment was more pronounced, probably reflecting the age-dependent expansion of the fibrillary astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). GFAP levels in children with infantile autism were higher than those in normal children of the same age range. S-100 protein concentrations were similar in both groups. High levels of GFAP in combination with normal S-100 protein concentrations in CSF indicates reactive astrogliosis in the CNS. In conclusion, the sensitive ELISA described makes it possible to measure low levels of GFAP present in the CSF of children. Combined assays of GFAP and S-100 protein can be used to discriminate between acute and chronic brain disorders in children.

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