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In vivo Two-photon Fluorescence Imaging of the Activity of the Inflammatory Biomarker LTA4H in a Mouse Pneumonia Model.

Severe atmospheric haze caused by industrial pollution has severely affected human health and led to the increasing incidence of cardiopulmonary diseases, including pneumonia. Conventional methods for diagnosis of pneumonia are complicated and tedious, and current clinical imaging techniques might cause organ injuries to some extent. Therefore, an accurate, fast, and intact imaging method must be developed to diagnose pneumonia in the early stages. In this study, we propose a new two-photon fluorescence probe, named as ASPC, for detection of the activity of the inflammatory biomarker LTA4H through specific recognition and cleavage of amides containing the unnatural amino acid L-AspBzl. The activity of LTA4H in the lung tissues of mice was rapidly and accurately monitored for the first time and could be an indicator for diagnosis of pneumonia. The severity of pneumonia in mice caused by haze particulate was determined through imaging the activity of LTA4H as biomarker and confirmed using a commercial ELISA kit of interleukin (IL)-1β. This work provides a promising method for clinical detection of pneumonia and for screening specific depressors of LTA4H as potential drug candidates.

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Vitreous levels of luteinizing hormone and VEGF are strongly correlated in healthy mammalian eyes.

Purpose/Aim: Luteinizing hormone (LH) is known to function as a key regulator of VEGF expression in reproductive organs. In recent years, LH has also been detected in human vitreous and LH receptors have been identified in human retina. This study was aimed to investigate a potential correlation between LH and VEGF levels in healthy mammalian eyes to provide supporting evidence of LH's potential involvement in intraocular VEGF regulation.

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Visual Non-Instrumental On-Site Detection of Fumonisin B₁, B₂, and B₃ in Cereal Samples Using a Clean-Up Combined with Gel-Based Immunoaffinity Test Column Assay.

A visual immunoaffinity test column (IATC) assay was developed to detect fumonisins in cereal samples for spot tests without the need for special instruments. The developed IATC assay had equivalent recognition capability for fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), fumonisin B₂ (FB₂), or fumonisin B₃ (FB₃), and exhibited no cross-reactivity with aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, or the T-2 toxin. The sample pretreatment was accomplished more rapidly and with greater ease, the entire assay procedure was completed in approximately 10 min, including sample pretreatment and testing. The limits of detection (LODs) of the IATC assay to detect fumonisins in the maize, barley, oat, and millet samples were 20 μg kg. The results of the spiked maize, barley, oat, and millet and real maize samples by the IATC assay agreed well with the results obtained by the commercial fumonisin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. The developed IATC assay can serve as a useful screening tool for the rapid, qualitative, and semi-quantitative detection of the total content of fumonisins (sum of FB₁, FB₂, and FB₃) in cereal samples on-site.

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Photodynamic therapy induces antifibrotic alterations in primary human vocal fold fibroblasts.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for laryngeal dysplasia, early-stage carcinoma, and papilloma, and was reported to have the ability to preserve laryngeal function and voice quality without clinical fibrotic response. We aimed to investigate the mechanism behind the antifibrotic effects of PDT on primary human vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) in vitro.

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Genotype-phenotype relationship of CCL5 in pulmonary tuberculosis infection in tribe: A pilot study.

Sahariya, a primitive tribe of Central India, has shown significantly increased incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Our previous study on Sahariya showed a significant association of -403G>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CCL5 with susceptibility to PTB. Hence, this study was aimed to analyze a genotype-phenotype relationship of this disease-associated SNP to develop a potential diagnostic marker for TB in this tribe.

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MicroRNA-155 inversely correlates with esophageal cancer progression through regulating tumor-associated macrophage FGF2 expression.

Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignancies with high incidence and mortality. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment have been linked to the accelerated tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miR) are 19-25 nucleotide-long, noncoding RNA molecules, functioning as modulators of gene expression, and mediate a variety of biological functions, including tumor growth. In the present study, the effects and molecular mechanism of miR-155 in TAMs isolated from EC were explored. The expression of miR-155 and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) in EC tissues and cell lines were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot assays. TAMs were also transfected with the described constructs. Following, the culture medium from TAMs was collected for further analysis. The released FGF2, and inflammatory cytokines were quantified using ELISA. The cell viability, migrated and invaded levels were calculated through Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK8), and transwell analysis. Moreover, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) vasculature formation was determined using matrigel angiogenesis analysis. The results indicated that miR-155 expression was decreased in EC tissues and cell lines, while FGF2 expression was increased in comparison to those in the normal control group. Moreover, miR-155 mimics transfection up-regulated tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-12 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), while down-regulated IL-10, Arginase-1 (Arg-1) and IL-22 levels in the culture medium from TAMs. And enhancing miR-155 expression in TAMs suppressed the cell viability, migration and invasion of ECA109 cells and reduced the angiogenesis. Nevertheless, over-expressing FGF2 abolished the role of miR-155 in cancer cell survival, migration, invasion as well as angiogenesis. Our findings indicated that miR-155-regulated FGF2 expression from TAMs suppressed EC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and inhibited vasculature formation. Thus, miR-155-modulated FGF2 might be a potential therapeutic target to prevent EC progression.

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Giardiasis: Serum antibodies and coproantigens in brown rats () from Grenada, West Indies.

is a serious zoonotic parasite, which causes diarrheal disease in humans and animals including rodents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of spp. in brown rats () in Grenada.

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ADAMTS-13 level in children with severe diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: Unmasking new association.

Severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 leads to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Few studies have reported reduced activity of ADAMTS-13 in patients with atypical and typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). We hypothesized that ADAMTS-13 deficiency might play a role in the pathogenesis of severe HUS. This study aimed to evaluate the ADAMTS-13 level in severe typical HUS. This prospective case-control study was carried out in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit and Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University from February 2013 to February 2014. The study included 15 consecutive children with typical HUS as well as 15 healthy children as a control group. Routine laboratory investigations were performed. Assessment of serum ADAMTS-13 level was performed using the Quantikine human ADAMTS-13 ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Nonparametric values were expressed as median and range, and the median of two groups was tested by Mann-Whitney test. The serum ADAMTS-13 level was significantly lower in HUS patients when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There were significant negative correlations between ADAMTS-13 level and duration on dialysis, as well as serum urea and creatinine. Furthermore, there were significant positive correlations between serum ADAMTS-13 level and both hemoglobin level and platelet count. Our study suggests that the ADAMTS-13 level was decreased in children with severe typical HUS and its deficiency correlated with disease severity.

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The mTOR Kinase Inhibitor CZ415 Inhibits Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Growth.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cell progression. CZ415 is a novel, highly-efficient and specific mTOR kinase inhibitor. The current study tested the potential anti-tumor activity of CZ415 in human PTC cells.

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Simultaneous quantification of adalimumab and infliximab in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Adalimumab (ADA) and infliximab (IFX) are therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (TMabs) targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). They are used to treat inflammatory diseases. Clinical trials have suggested that therapeutic drug monitoring for ADA or IFX could improve treatment response and cost-effectiveness. However, ADA and IFX were quantified by ELISA in all these studies, and the discrepancies between the results obtained raise questions about their reliability.We describe here the validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of ADA and IFX in human samples.

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