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Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells Induce a MyD88-Dependent Stromal Response to Promote a Tumor-Tolerant Immune Microenvironment.

Cancer cells exert mastery over the local tumor-associated stroma (TAS) to configure protective immunity within the tumor microenvironment. The immunomodulatory character of pancreatic lysates of patients with cancer differs from those with pancreatitis. In this study, we evaluated the cross-talk between pancreatic cancer and its TAS in primary human cell culture models. Upon exposure of TAS to pancreatic cancer cell-conditioned media, we documented robust secretion of IL6 and IL8. This TAS response was MyD88-dependent and sufficient to directly suppress both CD4 and CD8 T-cell proliferation, inducing Th17 polarization at the expense of Th1. We found that patients possessed a similar shift in circulating effector memory Th17:Th1 ratios compared with healthy controls. The TAS response also directly suppressed CD8 T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Overall, our results demonstrate how TAS contributes to the production of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res; 77(3); 672-83. ©2016 AACR.

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Attenuation of hyperglycemia-induced apoptotic signaling and anti-angiogenic milieu in cultured cytotrophoblast cells.

Preeclampsia (preE) is a hypertensive disorder that occurs 20% in diabetic pregnancy. We have shown that hyperglycemia impairs cytotrophoblast cell (CTB) function. In this study, we assess apoptotic and anti-angiogenic signaling in excess glucose-induced CTBs.

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Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Suppress Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice.

To evaluate the efficacy of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in the laser-induced mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

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Lazaroid U-74389G inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation of IL-1β-indcued aortic valve interstitial cells through glucocorticoid receptor and inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

Aortic valve calcification is characterized as the active process of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs), and considered as an inflammatory disease. As an antioxidant, the anti-inflammatory activity of Lazaroid has been exhibited in various models. We hypothesized that Lazaroid U-74389G would inhibit the osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs induced by IL-1β.

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Hyperglycemia impairs cytotrophoblast function via stress signaling.

Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for preeclampsia. Cytotrophoblast (CTB) invasion is facilitated from the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), regulated by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and may be inhibited in preeclampsia. This study assessed signaling mechanisms of hyperglycemia-induced CTB dysfunction.

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Interleukin-1beta increases baseline expression and secretion of interleukin-6 by human uveal melanocytes in vitro via the p38 MAPK/NF-kappaB pathway.

Melanocyte is the major cell component in the uvea. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine. The authors studied the expression of IL-6 in cultured human uveal melanocytes (UMs) and their modulation by IL-1β and explored the relevant signal pathways.

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Fibrinogen and fibrin induce synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines from isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Fibrinogen in plasma includes three main fractions; high-molecular-weight (HMW)-fibrinogen, low-molecular-weight (LMW)-fibrinogen, and very-low-molecular-weight (LMW')-fibrinogen. During acute-phase conditions, plasma fibrinogen levels and the HMW-/LMW-fibrinogen ratio increase rapidly due to increased synthesis of HMW-fibrinogen. The consequences of elevated plasma fibrinogen levels and local deposition of fibrin in inflammatory tissues observed during acute-phase conditions are not clear. We wanted to investigate proinflammatory effects of fibrinogen and fibrin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as reflected by altered mRNA expression and synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, and to explore the significance of altered HMW-/LMW-fibrinogen ratio. PBMC were isolated from whole blood using Lymphoprep. HMW-fibrinogen was separated from unfractioned fibrinogen by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Cells were incubated with unfractioned fibrinogen, HMW-fibrinogen or fibrin. Cytokine levels in cell lysates were determined using ELISA assays. Real-time PCR was used for mRNA quantification. We found that fibrinogen significantly increased mRNA levels, and induced synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha in PBMC in a dose dependent manner. Median (25, 75 percentile) IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations were 12 (5, 40) pg/ml and 16 (0,61) pg/ml, respectively. Median mRNA quantity was increased 12.3- (6.6, 48.6) and 1.7- (1.5, 6.5) fold for IL-6 and TNF-alpha compared to controls. The stimulatory effect of unfractioned fibrinogen was not significantly different from HMW-fibrinogen. Fibrinogen and fibrin were equally effective in promoting cytokine synthesis from PBMC. The results support that fibrin and fibrinogen may actively modulate the inflammatory process by inducing synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines from PBMC.

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Effect of hyperosmolality on beta-defensin gene expression by human corneal epithelial cells.

As human beta-defensins (hBD) are important antimicrobial peptides at epithelial surfaces, including the ocular surface, we tested the effect of hyperosmolar conditions on the expression of these peptides by human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs).

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