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           Search results for: Human IgM antibody, Monoclonal Antibodies, Host Mouse, Isotype IgM   

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Cutting Edge: B Cells Expressing Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide-Specific Antigen Receptor Are Tolerized in Normal Conditions.

Generation of neoantigens by citrullination is implicated in the production of anti-citrullinated protein Abs in rheumatoid arthritis, but citrullination is also a physiological process. To verify whether citrullin-specific B cells are immunologically ignorant or tolerant in normal conditions, transgenic (Tg) mice expressing IgM with the V region of an anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) mAb cloned from a rheumatoid arthritis patient were generated. CCP-specific B cells developed in the anti-CCP IgM Tg mice with an alteration of bone marrow B cell fractions, and the number of mature B cells decreased compared with wild-type or the control anti-influenza nucleoprotein-specific IgM Tg mice. In addition, B cells in anti-CCP IgM Tg mice are functionally anergic. Thus, tolerance is induced in CCP-specific B cells in vivo, suggesting that the immune systems are naturally exposed to citrullinated Ags, and anti-CCP Ab production requires additional steps beyond the generation of neoantigens by citrullination.

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CD83 Antibody Inhibits Human B Cell Responses to Antigen as well as Dendritic Cell-Mediated CD4 T Cell Responses.

Anti-CD83 Ab capable of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity can deplete activated CD83 human dendritic cells, thereby inhibiting CD4 T cell-mediated acute graft-versus-host disease. As CD83 is also expressed on the surface of activated B lymphocytes, we hypothesized that anti-CD83 would also inhibit B cell responses to stimulation. We found that anti-CD83 inhibited total IgM and IgG production in vitro by allostimulated human PBMC. Also, Ag-specific Ab responses to immunization of SCID mice xenografted with human PBMC were inhibited by anti-CD83 treatment. This inhibition occurred without depletion of all human B cells because anti-CD83 lysed activated CD83 B cells by Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and spared resting (CD83) B cells. In cultured human PBMC, anti-CD83 inhibited tetanus toxoid-stimulated B cell proliferation and concomitant dendritic cell-mediated CD4 T cell proliferation and expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A, with minimal losses of B cells (<20%). In contrast, the anti-CD20 mAb rituximab depleted >80% of B cells but had no effect on CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine expression. By virtue of the ability of anti-CD83 to selectively deplete activated, but not resting, B cells and dendritic cells, with the latter reducing CD4 T cell responses, anti-CD83 may be clinically useful in autoimmunity and transplantation. Advantages might include inhibited expansion of autoantigen- or alloantigen-specific B cells and CD4 T cells, thus preventing further production of pathogenic Abs and inflammatory cytokines while preserving protective memory and regulatory cells.

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A Special Connection between γδ T Cells and Natural Antibodies?

Natural antibodies (NAbs) play an important role in early host defense, autophagy and tissue remodeling, and in immune regulation. They arise spontaneously (without specific immunization), and are already present at birth. NAbs are produced by B1 B cells, MZ B cells and other B cell types. They include all major Ig subclasses but IgM antibodies are prevalent, especially early in development. NAbs may be poly-specific, recognize particular auto-antigens, or detect neo-determinants such as those exposed during apoptosis or generated by oxidation. NAbs do not require cognate T cell help but depend on soluble mediators produced by T cells. Our recent studies suggest that γδ T cells may have a special relationship with NAbs, and play a prominent role in their regulation, in part through the fine-tuning of IL-4 levels. The spontaneously activated state of these cells likely enables their cytokine production and other functions in the absence of external stimulation. Ontogenetically, the earlier arising γδ T cells are better positioned than αβ T cells to shape the developing repertoire of NAbs. Intriguingly, ligand specificities of NAbs and γδ T cell receptors appear to be overlapping, perhaps allowing γδ cognate help for certain NAb specificities. Via NAbs, γδ T cells could exert a regulatory influence on numerous processes in health and disease.

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Enhanced performance of an innovative dengue IgG/IgM rapid diagnostic test using an anti-dengue EDI monoclonal antibody and dengue virus antigen.

High levels of anti-dengue IgM or IgG can be detected using numerous rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, the sensitivity and specificity of these tests are reduced by changes in envelope glycoprotein antigenicity that inevitably occur in limited expression systems. A novel RDT was designed to enhance diagnostic sensitivity. Dengue viruses cultured in animal cells were used as antigens to retain the native viral coat protein. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were then developed, for the first time, against domain I of envelope glycoprotein (EDI). The anti-dengue EDI mAb was employed as a capturer, and EDII and EDIII, which are mainly involved in the induction of neutralizing antibodies in patients, were fully available to bind to anti-dengue IgM or IgG in patients. A one-way automatic blood separation device prevented reverse migration of plasma and maximize the capture of anti-dengue antibodies at the test lines. A clinical evaluation in the field proved that the novel RDT (sensitivities of 96.5% and 96.7% for anti-dengue IgM and IgG) is more effective in detecting anti-dengue antibodies than two major commercial tests (sensitivities of 54.8% and 82% for SD BIOLINE; 50.4% and 75.3% for PanBio). The innovative format of RDT can be applied to other infectious viral diseases.

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A potent neutralizing IgM mAb targeting the N218 epitope on E2 protein protects against Chikungunya virus pathogenesis.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a medically important human viral pathogen that causes Chikungunya fever accompanied with debilitating and persistent joint pain. Host-elicited or passively-transferred monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are essential mediators of CHIKV clearance. Therefore, this study aimed to generate and characterize a panel of mAbs for their neutralization efficacy against CHIKV infection in a cell-based and murine model. To evaluate their antigenicity and neutralization profile, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test were performed on mAbs of IgM isotype. CHIKV escape mutants against mAb 3E7b neutralization were generated, and reverse genetics techniques were then used to create an infectious CHIKV clone with a single mutation. 3E7b was also administered to neonate mice prior or after CHIKV infection. The survival rate, CHIKV burden in tissues and histopathology of the limb muscles were evaluated. Both IgM 3E7b and 8A2c bind strongly to native CHIKV surface and potently neutralize CHIKV replication. Further analyses of 3E7b binding and neutralization of CHIKV single-mutant clones revealed that N218 of CHIKV E2 protein is a potent neutralizing epitope. In a pre-binding neutralization assay, 3E7b blocks CHIKV attachment to permissive cells, possibly by binding to the surface-accessible E2-N218 residue. Prophylactic administration of 3E7b to neonate mice markedly reduced viremia and protected against CHIKV pathogenesis in various mice tissues. Given therapeutically at 4 h post-infection, 3E7b conferred 100% survival rate and similarly reduced CHIKV load in most mice tissues except the limb muscles. Collectively, these findings highlight the usefulness of 3E7b for future prophylactic or epitope-based vaccine design.

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[Demonstration of β-1,2 mannan structures expressed on the cell wall of Candida albicans yeast form but not on the hyphal form by using monoclonal antibodies].

Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus that may be observed as both commensal and opportunistic pathogen in humans. As one of the major components of Candida cell wall structure, mannan plays an important role in the fungus-host cell interaction and in virulence. The ability to switch from yeast to hypha form of microorganism is crutial in the development of C.albicans infections. Hyphal form has different antigenic properties compared to yeast form and structural changes occur in the yeast cell wall during transition from yeast to hypha form. Although there are several factors associated with this transition process, sufficient information is not available. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of configuration in mannan structure found in C.albicans cell wall by using monoclonal antibodies. C.albicans (NIHA 207) serotype A strains were used as test strains throughout the study, together with Salmonella choleraesuis 211 and Salmonella infantis as controls with similar cell wall structures to that of C.albicans. Cultures were maintained on YPD-agar medium by incubating at 28°C for yeast forms, and on YPD-broth medium in a shaking incubator at 37°C for 3-4 hours for the growth of hyphal forms. Cells were harvested in the exponential phase, and after being washed, the mannan content from C.albicans were extracted from pellet by heating in 20 mM sodium citrate buffer for 90 minutes at 125°C. Hybridoma technique was used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. After immunizing the Balb/C mice with antigen, the splenocytes were harvested and fusion was performed between spleen cells and F0 myeloma cells. The clones grown in HAT medium were screened for the presence of antibody producing hybrid cells by ELISA method. The antibody isotypes were determined by using a commercial kit (Pierce Biotechnology, ABD). The culture supernatants which contained monoclonal antibodies were collected and purified according to the ammonium sulphate method. Sandwich ELISA and immunofluorescence (IF) methods have been used to detect the experimental reactions. In our study, highly specific class IgM murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb-2B7) against C.albicans yeast cell wall were obtained from clone 2B7. These antibodies cross-reacted with S.choleraesuis 211 and S.infantis bacteria sharing similar cell wall structure of C.albicans. The existence of mannan β-1,2 bonds on the surface of C.albicans yeast form was confirmed with a commercial monoclonal antibody (mAb-ACMK-1; Matriks Biotek(®), Turkey) specific for those bonds. Besides, mAb-ACMK-1 interacted with C.albicans yeast form and gave intense fluorescence (high positive reaction) in IF method, but no fluorescence (negative) was detected with hyphal form. This data, obtained for the first time with this study, indicates that the mannan β-1,2 bonds are either found infrequently or none in the fungal hyphal wall. Although both monoclonal antibodies recognize the mannan antigen, mAb-2B7 reacted with S.choleraesuis 211, while mAb-ACMK-1 did not, due to the difference of epitope specificity. In conclusion, monoclonal antibodies may facilitate the characterization of antigenic structures of Candida, which will lead for the identification of new determinants that may increase the sensitivity and specificity of commercial tests used for mannan detection in serum.

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Accumulation of secreted antibodies in plant cell cultures varies according to the isotype, host species and culture conditions.

Nicotiana tabacum suspension cells have been widely used to produce monoclonal antibodies, but the yield of secreted antibodies is usually low probably because of proteolytic degradation. Most IgGs that have been expressed in suspension cells have been of the human IgG1 isotype. In this study, we examined whether other isotypes displayed the same sensitivity to proteolytic degradation and whether the choice of plant host species mattered. Human serum IgG displayed different degradation profiles when incubated in spent culture medium from N. tabacum, Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells. Zymography showed that the protease profile was host species dependent. Three human isotypes, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4, and a mouse IgG2a were provided with the same heavy- and light-chain variable regions from an anti-human IgM antibody and expressed in N. tabacum cv. BY-2 and A. thaliana cv. Col-0 cells. Although all tested isotypes were detected in the extracellular medium using SDS-PAGE and a functional ELISA, up to 10-fold differences in the level of intact antibody were found according to the isotype expressed, to the host species and to the culture conditions. In the best combination (BY-2 cells secreting human IgG1), we reported accumulation of more than 30 mg/L of intact antibody in culture medium. The possibility of using IgG constant regions as a scaffold to allow stable accumulation of antibodies with different variable regions was demonstrated for human IgG2 and mouse IgG2a.

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Characterization and removal of aggregates formed by nonspecific interaction of IgM monoclonal antibodies with chromatin catabolites during cell culture production.

We observed that IgM monoclonal antibodies and aggregates in mammalian cell culture supernatants were associated nonspecifically with nucleosomes, DNA, and histone proteins derived from nuclei of host cells that died during antibody production. A series of multimodal sample treatments were evaluated for their ability to selectively remove these contaminants without significant antibody loss. The first consisted of adding 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl urea (allantoin) and the DNA intercalating agent 7-ethoxyacridine-3,9-diamine (ethacridine), then flowing the supernatant through a column of mixed porous particles bearing metal affinity, anion exchange, and cation exchange functionalities. A one-step variant of the method was to mix chromatography particles with the allantoin-ethacridine-treated supernatant. An alternative one-step treatment consisted of passing untreated cell supernatant through a chelating monolith in tandem with an anion exchange monolith. All methods eliminated high molecular weight aggregates, and reduced smaller aggregates to 2-4%. They also achieved 98% DNA reduction, 99% reduction of nucleosomes and histones, 30-70% reduction of general host proteins, and 98% IgM recovery. Size exclusion chromatography analysis indicated that IgG monoclonal antibodies benefit similarly from treatment. Subsequent IgM purification reduced DNA levels beneath the level of detectability by fluorescent dye intercalation, histones to less than 10 parts per million by ELISA, and aggregates to less than 0.05% by size exclusion chromatography. The results point to chromatin catabolites as promoters of antibody aggregate formation.

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Development and characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies to first and second Ljungan virus genotypes.

Ljungan virus (LV) is a rodent pathogen that causes diabetes and myocarditis in its natural host. In addition, LV has been associated with human disease during pregnancy and of neonates, respectively. A panel of 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against first and second LV genotypes were produced by immunization of BALB/c mice with whole virus. Thirteen mAbs were class IgG antibodies and nine were class IgM antibodies; all of them contained kappa light chains. All mAbs were reactive with LV by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. In addition, five mAbs showed a positive staining in immunohistochemistry. No mAb bound to denatured capsid proteins detected by western immunoblotting. In contrast, the target capsid protein(s) of 20 mAbs were identified by immune precipitation, revealing the conformational nature of epitopes required for mAb binding. None of the mAbs reacted with third and fourth LV genotypes. mAbs characterized should provide useful tools for the development of diagnostic assays and the investigation of LV first and second genotype properties and its pathogenesis.

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Chikungunya virus neutralization antigens and direct cell-to-cell transmission are revealed by human antibody-escape mutants.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics throughout Africa and Asia, causing infectious arthritis and reportedly linked with fatal infections in newborns and elderly. Previous studies in animal models indicate that humoral immunity can protect against CHIKV infection, but despite the potential efficacy of B-cell-driven intervention strategies, there are no virus-specific vaccines or therapies currently available. In addition, CHIKV has been reported to elicit long-lasting virus-specific IgM in humans, and to establish long-term persistence in non-human primates, suggesting that the virus might evade immune defenses to establish chronic infections in man. However, the mechanisms of immune evasion potentially employed by CHIKV remain uncharacterized. We previously described two human monoclonal antibodies that potently neutralize CHIKV infection. In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape antibody-dependent neutralization to identify the CHIKV E2 domain B and fusion loop "groove" as the primary determinants of CHIKV interaction with these antibodies. Furthermore, for the first time, we have also demonstrated direct CHIKV cell-to-cell transmission, as a mechanism that involves the E2 domain A and that is associated with viral resistance to antibody-dependent neutralization. Identification of CHIKV sub-domains that are associated with human protective immunity, will pave the way for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. Moreover, the clear demonstration of CHIKV cell-to-cell transmission and its possible role in the establishment of CHIKV persistence, will also inform the development of future anti-viral interventions. These data shed new light on CHIKV-host interactions that will help to combat human CHIKV infection and inform future studies of CHIKV pathogenesis.

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