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The role of IL‑16 gene polymorphisms in endometriosis.

Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases affecting up to 10% of the female population of childbearing age and a major cause of pain and infertility. It is influenced by multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Interleukin‑16 (IL‑16) is a proinflammatory cytokine playing a pivotal role in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases as well as in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of two IL‑16 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4072111 and rs11556218, with the risk of endometriosis in women from Greece as well as to gain insight about the structural consequences of these two exonic SNPs regarding development of the disease. A total of 159 women with endometriosis (stages I‑IV) hospitalized for endometriosis, diagnosed by laparoscopic intervention and histologically confirmed, and 146 normal controls were recruited and genotyped. Subjects were genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR‑RFLP) strategy. A significant association was detected regarding the GG and GT genotype as well as 'G' allele of rs11556218 in patients with endometriosis. The rs4072111 SNP of the IL‑16 gene was not found to be associated with an increased susceptibility to endometriosis either for all patients (stages I‑IV) or for stage III and IV of the disease only. Our results demonstrated that rs11556218 is associated with endometriosis in Greek women, probably by resulting in the aberrant expression of IL‑16, as suggested by the bioinformatics analysis conducted on the SNP‑derived protein sequences, which indicated a possible association between mutation and functional modification of Pro‑IL‑16.

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Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum interleukin‑16 in patients with gastric cancer.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the major leading causes of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. Serum biomarkers have a vital role in diagnosis and prognosis of GC, and interleukin (IL)‑16 may serve as a useful biomarker with prognostic value for human cancers. The current study aimed to evaluate the expression level of serum IL‑16 in patients with GC, and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of IL‑16. ELISA was performed determine the serum IL‑16 levels in patients with GC and healthy controls. Receiver operator curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic potential value of serum IL‑16 in GC diagnosis. Migration and invasion assays were performed using cells with IL‑16 small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. The results demonstrated that serum IL‑16 levels were significantly higher in GC samples than in healthy controls, and increased serum IL‑16 levels were significantly associated with tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. Knockdown of IL‑16 significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of GC cells. In conclusion, the current results indicate that serum IL‑16 levels may have diagnostic and prognostic value for patient with GC.

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