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#28944314   2017/09/25 Save this To Up

Ligand activation of the Ah receptor contributes to gastrointestinal homeostasis.

The Ah receptor (AHR) is capable of binding a structurally diverse group of compounds that can be found in the diet, produced by bacteria in the gut and through endogenous metabolism. The gastrointestinal tract is a rich source of AHR ligands, which have been shown to protect the gut upon challenge with either pathogenic bacteria or toxic chemicals. The human AHR can be activated by a broader range of ligands compared to the mouse AHR, suggesting that studies in mice may underestimate the impact of AHR ligands in the human gut. The protective effect of AHR activation appears to be due to modulating the immune system within the gut. While several mechanisms have been established, due to the increasingly pleotropic nature of the AHR, other mechanisms of action likely exist that remain to be identified. The major contributors to AHR function in the gut and the most appropriate level of receptor activation that maintains intestinal homeostasis warrants further investigation.

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#28917668   2017/09/17 Save this To Up

Gut Microbe-Mediated Suppression of Inflammation-Associated Colon Carcinogenesis by Luminal Histamine Production.

Microbiome-mediated suppression of carcinogenesis may open new avenues for identification of therapeutic targets and prevention strategies in oncology. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficiency has been shown to promote inflammation-associated colorectal cancer by accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells, indicating a potential antitumorigenic effect of histamine. Here, we demonstrate that administration of hdc(+)Lactobacillus reuteri in the gut resulted in luminal hdc gene expression and histamine production in the intestines of Hdc(-/-) mice. This histamine-producing probiotic decreased the number and size of colon tumors and colonic uptake of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose by positron emission tomography in Hdc(-/-) mice. Administration of L. reuteri suppressed keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), Il22, Il6, Tnf, and IL1α gene expression in the colonic mucosa and reduced the amounts of proinflammatory, cancer-associated cytokines, keratinocyte chemoattractant, IL-22, and IL-6, in plasma. Histamine-generating L. reuteri also decreased the relative numbers of splenic CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells. Furthermore, an isogenic HDC-deficient L. reuteri mutant that was unable to generate histamine did not suppress carcinogenesis, indicating a significant role of the cometabolite, histamine, in suppression of chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal tumorigenesis. These findings link luminal conversion of amino acids to biogenic amines by gut microbes and probiotic-mediated suppression of colorectal neoplasia.

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#28842466   2017/08/26 Save this To Up

IL-18 Drives ILC3 Proliferation and Promotes IL-22 Production via NF-κB.

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are important regulators of the immune system, maintaining homeostasis in the presence of commensal bacteria, but activating immune defenses in response to microbial pathogens. ILC3s are a robust source of IL-22, a cytokine critical for stimulating the antimicrobial response. We sought to identify cytokines that can promote proliferation and induce or maintain IL-22 production by ILC3s and determine a molecular mechanism for this process. We identified IL-18 as a cytokine that cooperates with an ILC3 survival factor, IL-15, to induce proliferation of human ILC3s, as well as induce and maintain IL-22 production. To determine a mechanism of action, we examined the NF-κB pathway, which is activated by IL-18 signaling. We found that the NF-κB complex signaling component, p65, binds to the proximal region of the IL22 promoter and promotes transcriptional activity. Finally, we observed that CD11c(+) dendritic cells expressing IL-18 are found in close proximity to ILC3s in human tonsils in situ. Therefore, we identify a new mechanism by which human ILC3s proliferate and produce IL-22, and identify NF-κB as a potential therapeutic target to be considered in pathologic states characterized by overproduction of IL-18 and/or IL-22.

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#28806280   2017/08/14 Save this To Up

Integrated Analysis of Biopsies from Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Identifies SAA1 as a Link Between Mucosal Microbes with TH17 and TH22 Cells.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are believed to be driven by dysregulated interactions between the host and the gut microbiota. Our goal is to characterize and infer relationships between mucosal T cells, the host tissue environment, and microbial communities in patients with IBD who will serve as basis for mechanistic studies on human IBD.

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#28706520   2017/07/14 Save this To Up

Hypothermia Promotes Interleukin-22 Expression and Fine-Tunes Its Biological Activity.

Disturbed homeostasis as a result of tissue stress can provoke leukocyte responses enabling recovery. Since mild hypothermia displays specific clinically relevant tissue-protective properties and interleukin (IL)-22 promotes healing at host/environment interfaces, effects of lowered ambient temperature on IL-22 were studied. We demonstrate that a 5-h exposure of endotoxemic mice to 4°C reduces body temperature by 5.0° and enhances splenic and colonic il22 gene expression. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-17A were not increased. In vivo data on IL-22 were corroborated using murine splenocytes and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultured upon 33°C and polyclonal T cell activation. Upregulation by mild hypothermia of largely T-cell-derived IL-22 in PBMC required monocytes and associated with enhanced nuclear T-cell nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-c2. Notably, NFAT antagonism by cyclosporin A or FK506 impaired IL-22 upregulation at normothermia and entirely prevented its enhanced expression upon hypothermic culture conditions. Data suggest that intact NFAT signaling is required for efficient IL-22 induction upon normothermic and hypothermic conditions. Hypothermia furthermore boosted early signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation by IL-22 and shaped downstream gene expression in epithelial-like cells. Altogether, data indicate that hypothermia supports and fine-tunes IL-22 production/action, which may contribute to regulatory properties of low ambient temperature.

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#28697061   2017/07/11 Save this To Up

Elevation of Circulating Th17/Th22 Cells Exposed to Low-Level Formaldehyde and Its Relevance to Formaldehyde-Induced Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of formaldehyde exposure on Th17 and Th22 cells and its relevance to human occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD).

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#28611056   2017/06/14 Save this To Up

IGF1 potentiates the pro-inflammatory response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells via MAPK.

Acromegaly is characterized by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) excess and is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk. As innate immune responses are crucial in CVD development, and IGF1 is linked to subclinical inflammation, we hypothesized that GH/IGF1 excess contributes to CVD development by potentiating systemic inflammation. We aimed to assess the effects of GH/IGF1 on inflammatory cytokine production. Whole blood from acromegaly patients and healthy volunteers and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, with or without adding GH or IGF1 (in PBMC). Cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. The underlying signalling pathways were investigated by the inhibition of downstream targets of the IGF1 receptor. The following results were obtained. GH or IGF1 alone did not influence cytokine production in PBMCs. GH did not affect TLR-induced cytokine production, but co-stimulation with IGF1 dose dependently increased the TLR ligand-induced production of IL6 (P < 0.01), TNF alpha (P = 0.02) and IFNg (P < 0.01), as well as the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 (P = 0.01). IGF1 had no effect on IL1B, IL17 and IL22 production. Inhibition of the MAPK pathway, but not mTOR, completely abrogated the synergistic effect of IGF1 on the LPS-induced IL6 and TNF alpha production. In whole blood of acromegaly patients, ex vivo IL6 production was increased (P < 0.01). In conclusion, IGF1, but not GH, has pro-inflammatory effects, probably via the MAPK signalling pathway and might be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in acromegaly. The increased IL10 production possibly counteracts the pro-inflammatory effects.

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#28406748   2017/04/13 Save this To Up

Radiation-Induced Dermatitis is Mediated by IL17-Expressing γδ T Cells.

Radiation dermatitis is a serious cutaneous injury caused by radiation therapy or upon accidental nuclear exposure. However, the pathogenic immune mechanisms underlying this injury are still poorly understood. We seek to discover how the dysregulated immune response after irradiation orchestrates skin inflammation. The skin on the left flank of C57BL/6J wild-type and C57BL/6J Tcrd(-/-) mice, which are deficit in γδ T cells, was exposed to a single X-ray dose of 25 Gy, and the right-flank skin was used as a sham-irradiated control. At 4 weeks postirradiation, the wild-type skin exhibited signs of depilation, erythema and desquamation. Histological analysis showed hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and acanthosis. Dramatic elevation of IL17-expressing T cells was identified from the irradiated skin, which was mainly contributed by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells, rather than Th17 cells. Furthermore, protein levels of critical cytokines for IL17-expressing γδ T cell activation, IL1β and IL23 were found markedly upregulated. Lastly, radiation-induced dermatitis was significantly attenuated in γδ T cell knockout mice. In vitro, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) could be initiator cells of inflammation by providing a great number of pro-inflammatory mediators upon radiation, and as well as effector cells of epidermal hyperplasia in response to exogenous IL17 and/or IL22 treatment. Our findings implicate a novel role of IL17-expressing γδ T cells in mediating radiation-induced skin inflammation. This study reveals the innate immune response pathway as a potential therapeutic target for radiation skin injury.

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#28390867   2017/04/09 Save this To Up

Efficacy and Safety of MEDI2070, an Antibody Against Interleukin 23, in Patients With Moderate to Severe Crohn's Disease: A Phase 2a Study.

MEDI2070 is a human monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits interleukin 23 (IL23), a cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). We analyzed its safety and efficacy in treatment of CD in a phase 2a study.

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#28296821   2017/03/15 Save this To Up

Protease-activated Receptor 1 Plays a Proinflammatory Role in Colitis by Promoting Th17-related Immunity.

Proteolytic cleavage of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) can result in potent downstream regulatory effects on inflammation. Although PAR1 is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and activating proteases are increased in inflammatory bowel disease, the effect of PAR1 activation on colitis remains poorly understood, and has not previously been studied in pediatric disease.

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