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#28295868   2017/03/15 Save this To Up

cIAP2 promotes gallbladder cancer invasion and lymphangiogenesis by activating the NF-κB pathway.

Several studies have produced contradictory findings about the prognostic implications for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) in different types of cancer. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (cIAP2/BIRC) is one of the most extensively characterized human IAP. To date, no studies have focused on the expression level of cIAP2 in human gallbladder cancer (GBC), and the mechanism of cIAP2 in GBC invasion and lymphangiogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, cIAP2 expression in GBC was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between cIAP2 levels in cancer tissues and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients was analyzed. The biological effect of cIAP2 in GBC cells was tested using the Cell Counting Kit-8 Assay, Transwell assays and the ability of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLEC) to undergo tube formation. The role of cIAP2 in activating the NF-κB pathway was determined using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, immunofluorescence staining, western blotting and ELISA. Finally, an animal model was used to further confirm the role of cIAP2 in lymphangiogenesis. We showed that cIAP2 expression was elevated in human GBC tissues and correlated with a negative prognosis for patients. Moreover, cIAP2 was identified as a lymphangiogenic factor of GBC cells and, thus, promoted lymph node metastasis in GBC cells. Our study is the first to suggest that cIAP2 can promote GBC invasion and lymphangiogenesis by activating the NF-κB pathway.

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#28186433   2017/02/10 Save this To Up

Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Excretory-Secretory Antigen of Fasciola hepatica and Evaluation of Its Efficacy in the Diagnosis of Fascioliasis.

Parasitological methods are not helpful for the diagnosis of fascioliasis in acute and invasive periods of the disease. Detection of coproantigens seems to be a suitable alternative approach in the diagnosis of fascioliasis. The present study aimed to develop a reliable antigen detection system, using monoclonal antibodies raised against excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Fasciola hepatica, for the diagnosis of fascioliasis. Fasciola adult worms were collected from the bile ducts of infected animals. Species of the fluke was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR). ES antigen of F. hepatica was prepared. For production of monoclonal antibodies, mice were immunized with ES antigens of F. hepatica. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were fused with NS-1 myeloma cells, using polyethylene glycol. Hybridoma cells secreting specific antibody were expanded and cloned by limiting dilution. Moreover, polyclonal antibody was produced against F. hepatica ES antigen in rabbits. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system, using produced monoclonal antibody, was designed and stool samples of infected animals along with control samples were tested by the system. The capture ELISA detected the coproantigen in 27 of 30 (90%) parasitologically confirmed fascioliasis cases, while 4 of 39 (10.25%) samples infected with other parasitic infections showed a positive reaction in this system. No positive reactivity was found with healthy control samples. Accordingly, sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.2% were obtained for the capture ELISA system. The results were compared with those obtained with commercial BIO-X ELISA, and a very good (kappa = 0.9) agreement was found between the commercial kit and the developed capture ELISA. Findings of this study showed that the produced monoclonal antibody has appropriate performance for the detection of Fasciola coproantigen in stool samples and can be appropriately used for the diagnosis of fascioliasis.

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#27802519   2016/11/01 Save this To Up

Antiapoptotic Effect of Acetylcholine in Fas-Induced Apoptosis in Human Keratocytes.

To investigate the possible antiapoptotic effect of acetylcholine (ACh) in Fas-mediated apoptosis of primary human keratocytes in vitro, and to explore the underlying mechanism.

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#27777559   2016/10/25 Save this To Up

Curcumin Represses NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R Signaling in PMA-Induced Macrophages.

Aims: In the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on NLRP3 inflammasome in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism. Methods: Human monocytic THP-1 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 1 h and subsequently induced with PMA for 48 h. Total protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β release and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation were detected by ELISA assay and cellular NF-κB translocation kit, respectively. Results: Curcumin significantly reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion in PMA-induced macrophages. Moreover, Bay (a NF-κB inhibitor) treatment considerably suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in PMA-induced THP-1 cells. Curcumin also markedly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκB-α, and activation of NF-κB in PMA-induced macrophages. In addition, purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) siRNA was administered, and it significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome expression in PMA-induced macrophages. Furthermore, curcumin reversed PMA-stimulated P2X7R activation, which further reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion. Silencing of P2X7R using siRNA also suppressed the activation of NF-κB pathway in PMA-induced macrophages, but P2X7R-silenced cells did not significantly decrease the expression of TLR4 and MyD88. Conclusion: Curcumin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome through suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R pathways in PMA-induced macrophages.

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#27470352   2016/08/09 Save this To Up

Atorvastatin suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling in PMA-stimulated THP-1 monocytes.

Increasing evidence shows that NLRP3 inflammasome is closely associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on NLRP3 inflammasome in PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells and explore its underlying mechanism.

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#27421015   2016/07/16 Save this To Up

Quercetin ameliorates LPS-induced inflammation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by inhibition of the TLR2-NF-κB pathway.

Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid abundant in fruits, vegetables, and herbs, presents various pharmacological effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and the underlying mechanism of quercetin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cell viability was measured by the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Inflammatory cytokine secretions and nuclear factor (NF)-kB levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings showed that quercetin significantly reduced LPS-induced cytotoxicity in human PBMCs. Quercetin suppressed the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin (IL)-1b, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated human PBMCs. Moreover, quercetin reduced the LPS-induced increase in the expression of TLR2 mRNA and decreased the NF-kB concentration in LPS-stimulated human PBMCs. The data indicates that quercetin plays an important role in LPS-induced inflammation in human PBMCs via suppression of the TLR2-NF-kB pathway.

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#27395056   2016/07/10 Save this To Up

The Role of High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein in Interleukin-18-Induced Myofibroblastic Transition of Valvular Interstitial Cells.

Increased levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been reported in patients with calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, the role of IL-18 and HMGB1 in the modulation of the valvular interstitial cell (VIC) phenotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that HMGB1 mediates IL-18-induced myofibroblastic transition of VICs.

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#27389368   2016/08/18 Save this To Up

Arctigenin Confers Neuroprotection Against Mechanical Trauma Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells by Regulating miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a Expression to Alleviate Inflammation.

Mechanical trauma injury is a severe insult to neural cells. Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory factors that have dramatic consequences for undamaged cells, leading to normal cell death after the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary effects and evaluated the mechanism underlying the action of microRNA (miRNA)-199a and miRNA-16 in a mechanical trauma injury (MTI) model using SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. SH-SY5Y cells are often applied to in vitro models of neuronal function and differentiation. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in NF-κB and cholinergic signaling, which can regulate inflammation. The cell model was established by scratch-induced injury of human SH-SY5Y cells, which mimics the characteristics of MTI. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunocytochemistry were used to measure cell viability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine and cholinesterase (CHE) content. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content was measured to assess the degree of cell injury. The mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR to analyze ARC's mechanism of action. miRNA inhibitors and mimics were used to inhibit and strengthen the expression of miRNAs. Protein expression was detected by western blotting analysis. ARC treatment reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 levels as well as the number of TUNEL+ apoptotic SH-SY5Y cells surrounding the scratch and increased the IL-10 level compared to the controls. ARC attenuated the increase of the cell damage degree and LDH content induced by scratching, indicating increased cell survival. Mechanistic studies showed that ARC upregulated the miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a levels to reduce upstream protein (IKKα and IKKβ) expression and inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway activity; moreover, the increased miRNA-199a suppresses cholinesterases to increase cholinergic signaling, resulting in decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. ARC treatment confers protection for SH-SY5Y cells through positive regulation of miRNA expression, thereby reducing the inflammatory response. In turn, these effects accelerate injury repair in the scratch-induced injury model. These results might provide insights into the pharmacological role of ARC in anti-inflammation and neuroprotection in neural cells.

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#27366061   2016/07/01 Save this To Up

Amphiphilic core-shell nanoparticles containing dense polyethyleneimine shells for efficient delivery of microRNA to Kupffer cells.

Efficient and targeted delivery approach to transfer exogenous genes into macrophages is still a great challenge. Current gene delivery methods often result in low cellular uptake efficiency in vivo in some types of cells, especially for the Kupffer cells (KCs). In this article, we demonstrate that amphiphilic core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of well-defined hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cores and branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) shells (denoted as PEI@PMMA NPs) are efficient nanocarriers to deliver microRNA (miRNA)-loaded plasmid to the KCs. Average hydrodynamic diameter of PEI@ PMMA NPs was 279 nm with a narrow size distribution. The NPs also possessed positive surface charges up to +30 mV in water, thus enabling effective condensation of negatively charged plasmid DNA. Gel electrophoresis assay showed that the resultant PEI@PMMA NPs were able to completely condense miRNA plasmid at a weight ratio of 25:1 (N/P ratio equal to 45:1). The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and flow cytometry results showed that the PEI@PMMA/miRNA NPs displayed low cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis activity against the KCs. The maximum cell transfection efficiency reached 34.7% after 48 hours, which is much higher than that obtained by using the commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000 (1.7%). Bio-transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the PEI@PMMA NPs were mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the KCs. Furthermore, when compared to the control groups, the protein expression of target nuclear factor κB P65 was considerably inhibited (P<0.05) both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that the PEI@PMMA NPs with a unique amphiphilic core-shell nanostructure are promising nanocarriers for delivering miRNA plasmid to KCs.

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#27277384   2016/07/19 Save this To Up

Regulation of CBL and ESR1 expression by microRNA-22‑3p, 513a-5p and 625-5p may impact the pathogenesis of dust mite-induced pediatric asthma.

Despite evidence for the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in pediatric asthma, the mechanism responsible has not yet been fully elucidated. We aimed to identify novel miRNAs and to study their pathogenic role(s) in children with dust mite-induced asthma in order to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for this disease. For this purpose, 62 patients with asthma as well as 62 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. Twelve pairs of subjects were randomly subjected to microarray-based discovery analysis using a miRCURY LNA™ array. The differential expression of miRNAs and their targeted messenger RNAs were validated using RT-qPCR. Plasma concentrations of cytokines were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The results revealed that three novel miRNAs - miR-22-3p, miR‑513a-5p and miR-625-5p - were significantly downregulated in the asthma group compared with the control group (p<0.01), whereas the transcript levels of Cbl proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (CBL), peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta (PPARGC1B), and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) that are targeted by these miRNAs were increased (p<0.01). There were significant differences in the plasma concentrations of γ-interferon, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 between the two groups (p<0.05). Thus, miR-513a-5p, miR-22-3p and miR-625-5p may have an impact on the regulation of the immune response and inflammatory cytokine pathways through the regulation of their target gene(s), CBL, PPARGC1B and ESR1, which may then lead to a dust mite-induced asthma attack. Our findings may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of pediatric asthma.

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