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           Search results for: Human Liver Sinusoidal Microvascular Endothelial Cells   

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Emricasan Ameliorates Portal Hypertension and Liver Fibrosis in Cirrhotic Rats Through a Hepatocyte-Mediated Paracrine Mechanism.

In cirrhosis, liver microvascular dysfunction is a key factor increasing hepatic vascular resistance to portal blood flow, which leads to portal hypertension. De-regulated inflammatory and pro-apoptotic processes due to chronic injury play important roles in the dysfunction of liver sinusoidal cells. The present study aimed at characterizing the effects of the pan-caspase inhibitor emricasan on systemic and hepatic hemodynamics, hepatic cells phenotype, and underlying mechanisms in preclinical models of advanced chronic liver disease. We investigated the effects of 7-day emricasan on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, liver function, hepatic microcirculatory function, inflammation, fibrosis, hepatic cells phenotype, and paracrine interactions in rats with advanced cirrhosis due to chronic CCl administration. The hepato-protective effects of emricasan were additionally investigated in cells isolated from human cirrhotic livers. Cirrhotic rats receiving emricasan showed significantly lower portal pressure than vehicle-treated animals with no changes in portal blood flow, indicating improved vascular resistance. Hemodynamic improvement was associated with significantly better liver function, reduced hepatic inflammation, improved phenotype of hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells and macrophages, and reduced fibrosis. experiments demonstrated that emricasan exerted its benefits directly improving hepatocytes' expression of specific markers and synthetic capacity, and ameliorated nonparenchymal cells through a paracrine mechanism mediated by small extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes. : This study demonstrates that emricasan improves liver sinusoidal microvascular dysfunction in cirrhosis, which leads to marked amelioration in fibrosis, portal hypertension and liver function, and therefore encourages its clinical evaluation in the treatment of advanced chronic liver disease.

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Biology of portal hypertension.

Portal hypertension develops as a result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance often caused by chronic liver disease that leads to structural distortion by fibrosis, microvascular thrombosis, dysfunction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. While the basic mechanisms of LSEC and HSC dysregulation have been extensively studied, the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelet function in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension remains to be clearly characterized. As a secondary event, portal hypertension results in splanchnic and systemic arterial vasodilation, leading to the development of a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome and subsequently to clinically devastating complications including gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy from the formation of portosystemic shunts, ascites, and renal failure due to the hepatorenal syndrome. This review article discusses: (1) mechanisms of sinusoidal portal hypertension, focusing on HSC and LSEC biology, pathological angiogenesis, and the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelets, (2) the mesenteric vasculature in portal hypertension, and (3) future directions for vascular biology research in portal hypertension.

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Liraglutide improves liver microvascular dysfunction in cirrhosis: Evidence from translational studies.

Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a key role in the development of chronic liver disease (CLD). Liraglutide, well-established in type 2 diabetes, showed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. We evaluated the effects of liraglutide on HSC phenotype and hepatic microvascular function using diverse pre-clinical models of CLD. Human and rat HSC were in vitro treated with liraglutide, or vehicle, and their phenotype, viability and proliferation were evaluated. In addition, liraglutide or vehicle was administered to rats with CLD. Liver microvascular function, fibrosis, HSC phenotype and sinusoidal endothelial phenotype were determined. Additionally, the effects of liraglutide on HSC phenotype were analysed in human precision-cut liver slices. Liraglutide markedly improved HSC phenotype and diminished cell proliferation. Cirrhotic rats receiving liraglutide exhibited significantly improved liver microvascular function, as evidenced by lower portal pressure, improved intrahepatic vascular resistance, and marked ameliorations in fibrosis, HSC phenotype and endothelial function. The anti-fibrotic effects of liraglutide were confirmed in human liver tissue and, although requiring further investigation, its underlying molecular mechanisms suggested a GLP1-R-independent and NF-κB-Sox9-dependent one. This study demonstrates for the first time that liraglutide improves the liver sinusoidal milieu in pre-clinical models of cirrhosis, encouraging its clinical evaluation in the treatment of chronic liver disease.

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Liver Microvascular Injury and Thrombocytopenia of Antibody-Calicheamicin Conjugates in Cynomolgus Monkeys-Mechanism and Monitoring.

Adverse reactions reported in patients treated with antibody-calicheamicin conjugates such as gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) and inotuzumab ozogamicin include thrombocytopenia and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). The objective of this experimental work was to investigate the mechanism for thrombocytopenia, characterize the liver injury, and identify potential safety biomarkers. Cynomolgus monkeys were dosed intravenously at 6 mg/m/dose once every 3 weeks with a nonbinding antibody-calicheamicin conjugate (PF-0259) containing the same linker-payload as gemtuzumab ozogamicin and inotuzumab ozogamicin. Monkeys were necropsied 48 hours after the first administration (day 3) or 3 weeks after the third administration (day 63). PF-0259 induced acute thrombocytopenia (up to 86% platelet reduction) with nadirs on days 3 to 4. There was no indication of effects on megakaryocytes in bone marrow or activation of platelets in peripheral blood. Microscopic evaluation of liver from animals necropsied on day 3 demonstrated midzonal degeneration and loss of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) associated with marked platelet accumulation in sinusoids. Liver histopathology on day 63 showed variable endothelial recovery and progression to a combination of sinusoidal capillarization and sinusoidal dilation/hepatocellular atrophy, consistent with early SOS. Among biomarkers evaluated, there were early and sustained increases in serum hyaluronic acid (HA) that correlated well with serum aspartate aminotransferase and liver microscopic changes, suggesting that HA may be a sensitive diagnostic marker of the liver microvascular injury. These data support the conclusion that target-independent damage to liver SECs may be responsible for acute thrombocytopenia (through platelet sequestration in liver sinusoids) and development of SOS. .

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Cross-talk between autophagy and KLF2 determines endothelial cell phenotype and microvascular function in acute liver injury.

The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), inducible by simvastatin, confers endothelial vasoprotection. Considering recent data suggesting activation of autophagy by statins, we aimed to: 1) characterize the relationship between autophagy and KLF2 in the endothelium, 2) assess this relationship in acute liver injury (cold ischemia/reperfusion) and 3) study the effects of modulating KLF2-autophagy in vitro and in vivo.

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Oncostatin M induces IL-33 expression in liver endothelial cells in mice and expands ST2+CD4+ lymphocytes.

Interleukin (IL)-33 is crucially involved in liver pathology and drives hepatoprotective functions. However, the regulation of IL-33 by cytokines of the IL-6 family, including oncostatin M (OSM) and IL-6, is not well studied. The aim of the present study was to determine whether OSM mediates regulation of IL-33 expression in liver cells. Intramuscular administration in mice of an adenovirus encoding OSM (AdOSM) leads to increase in expression of OSM in muscles, liver, and serum of AdOSM-infected mice compared with control mice. The increase of circulating OSM markedly regulated mRNA of genes associated with blood vessel biology, chemotaxis, cellular death, induction of cell adhesion molecules, and the alarmin cytokine IL-33 in liver. Steady-state IL-33 mRNA was upregulated by OSM at an early phase (8 h) following AdOSM infection. At the protein level, the expression of IL-33 was significantly induced in liver endothelial cells [liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and vascular endothelial cells] with a peak at 8 days post-AdOSM infection in mice. In addition, we found OSM-stimulated human microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells and human LSEC/TRP3 cells showed a significant increase in expression of IL-33 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner in cell culture. The OSM-mediated overexpression of IL-33 was associated with the activation/enrichment of CD4(+)ST2(+) cells in liver of AdOSM-infected mice compared with adenovirus encoding green fluorescent protein-treated control mice. In summary, these data suggest that the cytokine OSM regulates the IL-33 expression in liver endothelial cells in vivo and in HMEC-1/TRP3 cells in vitro and may specifically expand the target CD4(+)ST2(+) cells in liver.

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