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Proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines in infants with uncomplicated and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Cytokine and chemokine levels were studied in infants (<5 years) with uncomplicated (MM) and severe malaria tropica (SM), and in Plasmodium falciparum infection-free controls (NEG). Cytokine plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-13, IL-31 and IL-33 were strongly elevated in MM and SM compared to NEG (P<0·0001). Inversely, plasma concentrations of IL-27 were highest in NEG infants, lower in MM cases and lowest in those with SM (P<0·0001, NEG compared to MM and SM). The levels of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP3)-α/C-C ligand 20 (CCL20), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)/CXCL9 and CXCL16 were enhanced in those with MM and SM (P<0·0001 compared to NEG), and MIP3-α/CCL20 and MIG/CXCL9 were correlated positively with parasite density, while that of IL-27 were correlated negatively. The levels of 6Ckine/CCL21 were similar in NEG, MM and SM. At 48-60 h post-anti-malaria treatment, the plasma concentrations of IL-10, IL-13, MIG/CXCL9, CXCL16 and MIP3-α/CCL20 were clearly diminished compared to before treatment, while IL-17F, IL-27, IL-31 and IL-33 remained unchanged. In summary, elevated levels of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines were generated in infants during and after acute malaria tropica. The proinflammatory type cytokines IL-31 and IL-33 were enhanced strongly while regulatory IL-27 was diminished in those with severe malaria. Similarly, MIP3-α/CCL20 and CXCL16, which may promote leucocyte migration into brain parenchyma, displayed increased levels, while CCL21, which mediates immune surveillance in central nervous system tissues, remained unchanged. The observed cytokine and chemokine production profiles and their dynamics may prove useful in evaluating either the progression or the regression of malarial disease.

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Chemokine redundancy in BOS pathogenesis. A possible role also for the CC chemokines: MIP3-beta, MIP3-alpha, MDC and their specific receptors.

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is one of the most important factors limiting the long-term survival of lung transplant recipients (LTR), however its pathogenesis still remains unclear. We hypothesized that an increased production of certain specific proinflammatory mediators in the first post-transplant year would predispose to BOS. We retrospectively evaluated temporal kinetics of some CC chemokines that have not yet been evaluated, including CCL3/MIP1-alpha, CCL4/MIP1-beta, CCL17/TARC, CCL19/MIP3-beta, CCL20/MIP3-alpha, CCL22/MDC and CCL26/eotaxin, in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BAL-f) in the first post-transplant year in a cohort of 8 LTR before the development of BOS (pre-BOS LTR) and 8 LTR with long-term stable clinical conditions (stable LTR). Chemokine levels were assayed by means of a multiplex sandwich ELISA. Furthermore, for those ligands which resulted significantly predictive of BOS onset, we analyzed the expression of specific receptors (CCR) on BAL cells. The proportion of CCR-expressing BAL cells was assessed by flow cytometry. We demonstrated that MIP3-beta/CCL19, MIP3-alpha/CCL20, MDC/CCL22 levels at 6 months post-transplant significantly predicted BOS onset. In addition, the temporal behavior of these factors resulted significantly different in pre-BOS patients as compared to stable LTR. Finally the expression of CCR was documented on BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and, in some cases, their expression was found to vary between the two groups. Within the complexity of the chemokine network, these three CCL factors could play an additive role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory process leading to bronchiolar fibro-obliteration.

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Melatonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced CC chemokine subfamily gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a microarray analysis.

Melatonin possesses a number of important biologic activities including oncostatic, anti-oxidant, and immunostimulatory actions. This study was designed to assess the effects of melatonin on inflammation-related gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), using CombiMatrix 2K Human Inflammation chip. After pretreatment with melatonin (100 microm) for 4 hr, cells were incubated with LPS (1 microg/mL) for 24 hr. We compared gene expression profiles between LPS-treated, melatonin-treated, LSP/melatonin-treated, and control groups. LPS induced the upregulation of 95 genes, compared with controls. Melatonin pretreatment in LPS-stimulated PBMCs suppressed the expression of 23 genes more than twofold. Interestingly, melatonin showed a suppressive effect on the expression of CC chemokine subfamily genes, including CCL2/MCP1, CCL3/MIP1 alpha, CCL4/MIP1 beta, CCL5/RANTES, CCL8/MCP2, CCL20/MDC, and CCL22/MIP3 alpha, in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. This result was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Among the CC chemokine subfamily genes, particularly, the expression of CCL2 and CCL5 was markedly downregulated by melatonin in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. The secretion levels of CCL2 and CCL5 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Stimulation of PBMCs by LPS induced the secretion of CCL2 (2334.3 +/- 161.4 pg/mL, mean +/- S.E.M.), whereas melatonin pretreatment (153.0 +/- 3.8 pg/mL) inhibited the LPS-induced secretion of CCL2. Melatonin pretreatment (2696.2 +/- 385.3 pg/mL) also inhibited the LPS-induced secretion of CCL5 (4679.6 +/- 107.5 pg/mL). Taken together, these results suggest that melatonin may have a suppressive effect on LPS-induced expression of CC chemokine genes, especially CCL2 and CCL5, which may explain its beneficial effects in the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.

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