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Structure-Antioxidant-Antiproliferative Activity Relationships of Natural C7 and C7-C8 Hydroxylated Flavones and Flavanones.

Common food flavonoids: chrysin, apigenin, luteolin, diosmetin, pinocembrin, naringenin, eriodictyol, hesperetin, and their analogues with an additional hydroxyl group at the C-8 position obtained via biotransformation were tested for antioxidant activity using the ABTS, DPPH, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. They were also tested for antiproliferative activity against selected human cancer cell lines-MV-4-11 (biphenotypic B myelomonocytic leukemia), MCF7 (breast carcinoma), LoVo (colon cancer), LoVo/DX (colon cancer doxorubicin resistant), and DU 145 (prostate cancer)-and two normal human cell lines-MCF 10A (breast cells) and HLMEC (lung microvascular endothelial cells). Flavonoids with a C7-C8 catechol moiety indicated much higher antioxidant activity compared with the C7 hydroxy analogues. However, because they were unstable under the assay conditions, they did not show antiproliferative activity or it was very low.

2667 related Products with: Structure-Antioxidant-Antiproliferative Activity Relationships of Natural C7 and C7-C8 Hydroxylated Flavones and Flavanones.

Androgen Receptor Androgen Receptor (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α)-Androst-2-en-17-one Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen 1,4 Androstadiene 3,17 di ELISA 5α-Androstane-3α, ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β- Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor Ab 1 Androgen Receptor Antibod Androst-16-en-3-ol C19H30

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Protein kinase Ds promote tumor angiogenesis through mast cell recruitment and expression of angiogenic factors in prostate cancer microenvironment.

Mast cells are being increasingly recognized as critical components in the tumor microenvironment. Protein Kinase D (PKD) is essential for the progression of prostate cancer, but its role in prostate cancer microenvironment remains poorly understood.

2451 related Products with: Protein kinase Ds promote tumor angiogenesis through mast cell recruitment and expression of angiogenic factors in prostate cancer microenvironment.

Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Prostate cancer test tiss Cultrex In Vitro Angiogen Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Angiogenesis (Human) Quan Prostate cancer tissue ar Prostate cancer tissue ar Non-small cell lung cance Prostate cancer tissue ar Prostate cancer, hyperpla

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An Improved Methodology to Visualise Tumour Induced Changes in Vasculature Using the Chick Chorionic Allantoic Membrane Assay.

Decreasing the vascularity of a tumour has proven to be an effective strategy to suppress tumour growth and metastasis. Anti-angiogenic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of advanced-stage cancers, however there is still demand for further improvement. This necessitates new experimental models that will allow researchers to reliably study aspects of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an in vivo technique in which the highly vascular and accessible chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is used to study tumour-induced changes in the macro and microvessels.

2485 related Products with: An Improved Methodology to Visualise Tumour Induced Changes in Vasculature Using the Chick Chorionic Allantoic Membrane Assay.

FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Cultrex In Vitro Angiogen FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Chicken antiBovine Insuli Internexin NF66 Antibody, TGF beta induced factor 2 Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Oral squamous cell cancer Atherosclerosis (Mouse) A

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Lymphatic endothelial cells actively regulate prostate cancer cell invasion.

Lymphatic vessels serve as the primary route for metastatic spread to lymph nodes. However, it is not clear how interactions between cancer cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), especially within hypoxic microenvironments, affect the invasion of cancer cells. Here, using an MR compatible cell perfusion assay, we investigated the role of LEC-prostate cancer (PCa) cell interaction in the invasion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by two human PCa cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, under normoxia and hypoxia, and determined the metabolic changes that occurred under these conditions. We observed a significant increase in the invasion of ECM by invasive PC-3 cells, but not poorly invasive DU-145 cells when human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dlys) were present. Enhanced degradation of ECM by PC-3 cells in the presence of HMVEC-dlys identified interactions between HMVEC-dlys and PCa cells influencing cancer cell invasion. The enhanced ECM degradation was partly attributed to increased MMP-9 enzymatic activity in PC-3 cells when HMVEC-dlys were in close proximity. Significantly higher uPAR and MMP-9 expression levels observed in PC-3 cells compared to DU-145 cells may be one mechanism for increased invasion and degradation of matrigel by these cells irrespective of the presence of HMVEC-dlys. Hypoxia significantly decreased invasion by PC-3 cells, but this decrease was significantly attenuated when HMVEC-dlys were present. Significantly higher phosphocholine was observed in invasive PC-3 cells, while higher glycerophosphocholine was observed in DU-145 cells. These metabolites were not altered in the presence of HMVEC-dlys. Significantly increased lipid levels and lipid droplets were observed in PC-3 and DU-145 cells under hypoxia reflecting an adaptive survival response to oxidative stress. These results suggest that in vivo, invasive cells in or near lymphatic endothelial cells are likely to be more invasive and degrade the ECM to influence the metastatic cascade. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2762 related Products with: Lymphatic endothelial cells actively regulate prostate cancer cell invasion.

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β-Lapachone Induces NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1- and Oxidative Stress-Dependent Heat Shock Protein 90 Cleavage and Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis.

β-Lapachone [β-lap; 3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione] is a novel anticancer drug currently under investigation in phase I/II clinical trials. However, the mechanism underlying its clinical efficacy remains unclear. In this study, we found that β-lap provoked the cleavage of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in

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Rabbit heat shock protein Rabbit heat shock protein Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen Recombinant Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Phosph Heat Shock Protein 70, hu 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty Anti Androgen Receptor pr CAR,Car,Constitutive andr ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β- Androgen Receptor Ab 1 Human Heat shock proteins

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Combination of Quercetin and 2-Methoxyestradiol Enhances Inhibition of Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP and PC-3 Cells Xenograft Tumor Growth.

Quercetin and 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME) are promising anti-cancer substances. Our previous in vitro study showed that quercetin synergized with 2-Methoxyestradiol exhibiting increased antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity in both androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines. In the present study, we determined whether their combination could inhibit LNCaP and PC-3 xenograft tumor growth in vivo and explored the underlying mechanism. Human prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cells were inoculated subcutaneously in male BALB/c nude mice. When xenograft tumors reached about 100 mm3, mice were randomly allocated to vehicle control, quercetin or 2-Methoxyestradiol singly treated and combination treatment groups. After therapeutic intervention for 4 weeks, combination treatment of quercetin and 2-ME i) significantly inhibited prostate cancer xenograft tumor growth by 46.8% for LNCaP and 51.3% for PC-3 as compared to vehicle control group, more effective than quercetin (28.4% for LNCaP, 24.8% for PC3) or 2-ME (32.1% for LNCaP, 28.9% for PC3) alone; ii) was well tolerated by BALB/c mice and no obvious toxic reactions were observed; iii) led to higher Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cleaved caspase-3 protein expression and apoptosis rate; and iv) resulted in lower phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) protein level, vascular endothelial growth factor protein and mRNA expression, microvascular density and proliferation rate than single drug treatment. These effects were more remarkable compared to vehicle group. Therefore, combination of quercetin and 2-ME can serve as a novel clinical treatment regimen owning the potential of enhancing antitumor effect on prostate cancer in vivo and lessening the dose and side effects of either quercetin or 2-ME alone. These in vivo results will lay a further solid basis for subsequent researches on this novel therapeutic regimen in human prostate cancer.

2220 related Products with: Combination of Quercetin and 2-Methoxyestradiol Enhances Inhibition of Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP and PC-3 Cells Xenograft Tumor Growth.

AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Epidermal Growth Factor ( CAR,CAR,Constitutive acti Recombinant Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Human Prostate Microvascu Goat Anti-Human Androgen Rabbit Anti-Human Androge ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β- Epidermal Growth Factor ( Liver cancer tissue array

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Procyanidin B2 3,3″-di-O-gallate inhibits endothelial cells growth and motility by targeting VEGFR2 and integrin signaling pathways.

Targeting angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis, using non-toxic phytochemicals has emerged as a translational opportunity for angioprevention and to control advanced stages of malignancy. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory effects and associated mechanism/s of action of Procyanidin B2-3,3″-di- O-gallate (B2G2), a major component of grape seed extract, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human prostate microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). Our results showed that B2G2 (10-40 μM) inhibits growth and induces death in both HUVECs and HPMECs. Additional studies revealed that B2G2 causes a G1 arrest in cell cycle progression of HUVECs by down-regulating cyclins (D1 and A), CDKs (Cdk2 and Cdc2) and Cdc25c phosphatase and up-regulating CDK inhibitors (p21 and p27) expression. B2G2 also induced strong apoptotic death in HUVECs through increasing p53, Bax and Smac/Diablo expression while decreasing Bcl-2 and survivin levels. Additionally, B2G2 inhibited the growth factors-induced capillary tube formation in HUVECs and HPMECs. Interestingly, conditioned media (CCM) from prostate cancer (PCA) cells (LNCaP and PC3) grown under normoxic (~21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions significantly enhanced the tube formation in HUVECs, which was compromised in presence of conditioned media from B2G2-treated PCA cells. B2G2 also inhibited the motility and invasiveness of both HUVECs and HPMECs. Mechanistic studies showed that B2G2 targets VEGFR2/PI3K/Akt and integrin signaling molecules which are important for endothelial cells survival, proliferation, tube formation and motility. Overall, we report that B2G2 inhibits several attributes of angiogenesis in cell culture; therefore, it warrants further investigation for efficacy for angioprevention and cancer control.

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Human Retinal Microvascul Human Prostate Microvascu Epidermal Growth Factor ( RFP Expressing Human Saph (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Androst-4-ene-3,17-dion-1 Androstadienone C19H26O C Rat Anti-Human Endothelia Androstane-3a, 17b-diol 5 Rabbit Anti-Human Androge ∆1-Androstene-3β,17β-

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Inhibition of STAT3 signaling targets both tumor-initiating and differentiated cell populations in prostate cancer.

Despite of tremendous research efforts to profile prostate cancer, the genetic alterations and biological processes that correlate with disease progression remain partially elusive. In this study we show that the STAT3 small molecule inhibitor Stattic caused S-phase accumulation at low-dose levels and led to massive apoptosis at a relatively high-dose level in prostate cancer cells. STAT3 knockdown led to the disruption of the microvascular niche which tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and non-tumor initiating cells (non-TICs)depend on. Primary human prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cell line contained high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(high)) subpopulations with stem cell-like characteristics, which expressed higher levels of the active phosphorylated form of STAT3 (pSTAT3) than that of non-ALDH(high) subpopulations. Stattic could singnificantly decrease the population of ALDH(high) prostate cancer cells even at low-dose levels. IL-6 can convert non-ALDH(high) cells to ALDH(high) cells in prostate cancer cell line as well as from cells derived from human prostate tumors, the conversion mediated by IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor or upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 knockdown significantly impaired the ability of prostate cancer cells to initiate development of prostate adenocarcinoma. Moreover, blockade of STAT3 signaling was significantly effective in eradicating the tumor-initiating and bulk tumor cancer cell populations in both prostate cancer cell-line xenograft model and patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models. This data suggests that targeting both tumor initiating and differentiated cell populations by STAT3 inhibition is predicted to have greater efficacy for prostate cancer treatment.

2717 related Products with: Inhibition of STAT3 signaling targets both tumor-initiating and differentiated cell populations in prostate cancer.

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Circulating tumor cells from prostate cancer patients interact with E-selectin under physiologic blood flow.

Hematogenous metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths, yet the mechanism remains unclear. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood may employ different pathways to cross blood endothelial barrier and establish a metastatic niche. Several studies provide evidence that prostate cancer (PCa) cell tethering and rolling on microvascular endothelium via E-selectin/E-selectin ligand interactions under shear flow theoretically promote extravasation and contribute to the development of metastases. However, it is unknown if CTCs from PCa patients interact with E-selectin expressed on endothelium, initiating a route for tumor metastases. Here we report that CTCs derived from PCa patients showed interactions with E-selectin and E-selectin expressing endothelial cells. To examine E-selectin-mediated interactions of PCa cell lines and CTCs derived from metastatic PCa patients, we used fluorescently-labeled anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody J591-488 which is internalized following cell-surface binding. We employed a microscale flow device consisting of E-selectin-coated microtubes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on parallel-plate flow chamber simulating vascular endothelium. We observed that J591-488 did not significantly alter the rolling behavior in PCa cells at shear stresses below 3 dyn/cm(2). CTCs obtained from 31 PCa patient samples showed that CTCs tether and stably interact with E-selectin and E-selectin expressing HUVECs at physiological shear stress. Interestingly, samples collected during disease progression demonstrated significantly more CTC/E-selectin interactions than samples during times of therapeutic response (p=0.016). Analysis of the expression of sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x)) in patient samples showed that a small subset comprising 1.9-18.8% of CTCs possess high sLe(x) expression. Furthermore, E-selectin-mediated interactions between prostate CTCs and HUVECs were diminished in the presence of anti-E-selectin neutralizing antibody. CTC-Endothelial interactions provide a novel insight into potential adhesive mechanisms of prostate CTCs as a means to initiate metastasis.

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Osteopontin and MMP9: Associations with VEGF Expression/Secretion and Angiogenesis in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells.

Osteopontin and MMP9 are implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis, and to elucidate the role of osteopontin in this process. We report here that osteopontin/αvβ3 signaling pathway which involves ERK1/2 phosphorylation regulates the expression of VEGF. An inhibitor to MEK or curcumin significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of VEGF. MMP9 knockdown reduces the secretion but not the expression of VEGF. Moreover, MMP9 knockdown increases the release of angiostatin, a key protein that suppresses angiogenesis. Conditioned media from PC3 cells treated with curcumin or MEK inhibitor inhibited tube formation in vitro in human microvascular endothelial cells. Similar inhibitory effect on tube formation was found with conditioned media collected from PC3 cells expressing mutant-osteopontin at integrin-binding site and knockdown of osteopontin or MMP9. We conclude that MMP9 activation is associated with angiogenesis via regulation of secretion of VEGF and angiostatin in PC3 cells. Curcumin is thus a potential drug for cancer treatment because it demonstrated anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive properties.

2000 related Products with: Osteopontin and MMP9: Associations with VEGF Expression/Secretion and Angiogenesis in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells.

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