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#28932200   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Is Increased Intracellular Calcium in Red Blood Cells a Common Component in the Molecular Mechanism Causing Anemia?

For many hereditary disorders, although the underlying genetic mutation may be known, the molecular mechanism leading to hemolytic anemia is still unclear and needs further investigation. Previous studies revealed an increased intracellular Ca(2+) in red blood cells (RBCs) from patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or Gardos channelopathy. Therefore we analyzed RBCs' Ca(2+) content from 35 patients with different types of anemia (16 patients with hereditary spherocytosis, 11 patients with hereditary xerocytosis, 5 patients with enzymopathies, and 3 patients with hemolytic anemia of unknown cause). Intracellular Ca(2+) in RBCs was measured by fluorescence microscopy using the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4 and subsequent single cell analysis. We found that in RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis the intracellular Ca(2+) levels were significantly increased compared to healthy control samples. For enzymopathies and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause the intracellular Ca(2+) levels in RBCs were not significantly different. These results lead us to the hypothesis that increased Ca(2+) levels in RBCs are a shared component in the mechanism causing an accelerated clearance of RBCs from the blood stream in channelopathies such as hereditary xerocytosis and in diseases involving defects of cytoskeletal components like hereditary spherocytosis. Future drug developments should benefit from targeting Ca(2+) entry mediating molecular players leading to better therapies for patients.

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#28924151   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

DNA Methylomes Reveal Biological Networks Involved in Human Eye Development, Functions and Associated Disorders.

This work provides a comprehensive CpG methylation landscape of the different layers of the human eye that unveils the gene networks associated with their biological functions and how these are disrupted in common visual disorders. Herein, we firstly determined the role of CpG methylation in the regulation of ocular tissue-specification and described hypermethylation of retinal transcription factors (i.e., PAX6, RAX, SIX6) in a tissue-dependent manner. Second, we have characterized the DNA methylome of visual disorders linked to internal and external environmental factors. Main conclusions allow certifying that crucial pathways related to Wnt-MAPK signaling pathways or neuroinflammation are epigenetically controlled in the fibrotic disorders involved in retinal detachment, but results also reinforced the contribution of neurovascularization (ETS1, HES5, PRDM16) in diabetic retinopathy. Finally, we had studied the methylome in the most frequent intraocular tumors in adults and children (uveal melanoma and retinoblastoma, respectively). We observed that hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is a frequent event in ocular tumors, but also unmethylation is associated with tumorogenesis. Interestingly, unmethylation of the proto-oncogen RAB31 was a predictor of metastasis risk in uveal melanoma. Loss of methylation of the oncogenic mir-17-92 cluster was detected in primary tissues but also in blood from patients.

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#28916711   2017/09/16 Save this To Up

Comparative analysis of three-dimensional chromosomal architecture identifies a novel fetal hemoglobin regulatory element.

Chromatin structure is tightly intertwined with transcription regulation. Here we compared the chromosomal architectures of fetal and adult human erythroblasts and found that, globally, chromatin structures and compartments A/B are highly similar at both developmental stages. At a finer scale, we detected distinct folding patterns at the developmentally controlled β-globin locus. Specifically, new fetal stage-specific contacts were uncovered between a region separating the fetal (γ) and adult (δ and β) globin genes (encompassing the HBBP1 and BGLT3 noncoding genes) and two distal chromosomal sites (HS5 and 3'HS1) that flank the locus. In contrast, in adult cells, the HBBP1-BGLT3 region contacts the embryonic ε-globin gene, physically separating the fetal globin genes from the enhancer (locus control region [LCR]). Deletion of the HBBP1 region in adult cells alters contact landscapes in ways more closely resembling those of fetal cells, including increased LCR-γ-globin contacts. These changes are accompanied by strong increases in γ-globin transcription. Notably, the effects of HBBP1 removal on chromatin architecture and gene expression closely mimic those of deleting the fetal globin repressor BCL11A, implicating BCL11A in the function of the HBBP1 region. Our results uncover a new critical regulatory region as a potential target for therapeutic genome editing for hemoglobinopathies and highlight the power of chromosome conformation analysis in discovering new cis control elements.

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#28905381   2017/09/14 Save this To Up

False-positive pregnancy test after transfusion of solvent/detergent-treated plasma.

The transmission of pathogens, antibodies, and proteins is a possible consequence of blood product transfusion. A female patient had an unexpected positive serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin result, indicative of pregnancy, after she had received a transfusion with 1 unit of platelet concentrate, 4 units of red blood cells, and 4 units of pooled solvent/detergent-treated plasma (Octaplas).

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#28899930   2017/09/13 Save this To Up

Therapeutic gene editing in CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors from Fanconi anemia patients.

Gene targeting constitutes a new step in the development of gene therapy for inherited diseases. Although previous studies have shown the feasibility of editing fibroblasts from Fanconi anemia (FA) patients, here we aimed at conducting therapeutic gene editing in clinically relevant cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In our first experiments, we showed that zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated insertion of a non-therapeutic EGFP-reporter donor in the AAVS1 "safe harbor" locus of FA-A lymphoblastic cell lines (LCLs), indicating that FANCA is not essential for the editing of human cells. When the same approach was conducted with therapeutic FANCA donors, an efficient phenotypic correction of FA-A LCLs was obtained. Using primary cord blood CD34(+) cells from healthy donors, gene targeting was confirmed not only in in vitro cultured cells, but also in hematopoietic precursors responsible for the repopulation of primary and secondary immunodeficient mice. Moreover, when similar experiments were conducted with mobilized peripheral blood CD34(+) cells from FA-A patients, we could demonstrate for the first time that gene targeting in primary hematopoietic precursors from FA patients is feasible and compatible with the phenotypic correction of these clinically relevant cells.

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#28886443   2017/09/08 Save this To Up

Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142), and Patent Blue V (E131) by erythrocytes.

The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P. falciparum including chloroquine-resistant isolates. Herein we have studied the antimalarial activities of dyes with different scaffold and we report that the triarylmethane dye (TRAM) Brilliant green inhibits the growth of asexual stages (IC50 ≤ 2 μM) and has exflagellation-blocking activity (IC50 ≤ 800 nM) against P. falciparum reference strains (3D7, 7G8) and chloroquine-resistant clinical isolate (Q206). In a second step we have investigated the antiplasmodial activities of two polysulfonated triarylmethane food dyes. Green S (E142) is weakly active against P. falciparum asexual stage (IC50 ≃ 17 μM) whereas Patent Blue V (E131) is inactive in both antimalarial assays. By applying liquid chromatography techniques for the culture supernatant analysis after cell washings and lysis, we report the detection of Brilliant green in erythrocytes, the selective uptake of Green S (E142) by infected erythrocytes, whereas Patent Blue V (E131) could not be detected within non-infected and 3D7-infected erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that two polysulfonated food dyes might display different affinity with transporters or channels on infected RBC membrane.

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#28863277   2017/09/01 Save this To Up

Insights into genetic diversity and biological propensities of potentially zoonotic avian influenza H9N2 viruses circulating in Egypt.

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have established endemic status in Egyptian poultry populations since 2012. Recently, four cases of human H9N2 virus infections in Egypt demonstrated the zoonotic potential of these viruses. Egyptian H9N2 viruses obtained from 2011 to 2014 phylogenetically grouped into three clusters (1-3) within subclade B of the G1 lineage. Antigenically, a close clustering of the Egyptian H9N2 viruses with other recent G1-B like H9N2 strains and a significant antigenic distance from viruses outside the G1-B lineage was evident. Recent Egyptian LPAIV H9N2 showed a tendency to increased binding with erythrocytes expressing α 2,6-linked sialic acid which correlated with the Q226L amino acid substitution at the receptor binding unit of the hemagglutinin (Q234L, H9 numbering). Sequence analyses of the N2 neuraminidase (NA) revealed substitutions in the NA hemadsorption site similar to the N2 of prepandemic H3N2/1968, but no distinct antigenic or functional characteristics of the H9N2 NA associated with increased zoonotic potential could be identified.

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#28855121   2017/08/31 Save this To Up

Tubulin is retained throughout the human hematopoietic/erythroid cell differentiation process and plays a structural role in sedimentable fraction of mature erythrocytes.

We investigated the properties of tubulin present in the sedimentable fraction ("Sed-tub") of human erythrocytes, and tracked the location and organization of tubulin in various types of cells during the process of hematopoietic/erythroid differentiation. Sed-tub was sensitive to taxol/nocodazole (drugs that modify microtubule assembly/disassembly), but was organized as part of a protein network rather than in typical microtubule form. This network had a non-uniform "connected-ring" structure, with tubulin localized in the connection areas and associated with other proteins. When tubulin was eliminated from Sed-tub fraction, this connected-ring structure disappeared. Spectrin, a major protein component in Sed-tub fraction, formed a complex with tubulin. During hematopoietic differentiation, tubulin shifts from typical microtubule structure (in pro-erythroblasts) to a disorganized structure (in later stages), and is retained in reticulocytes following enucleation. Thus, tubulin is not completely lost when erythrocytes mature; it continues to play a structural role in the Sed-tub fraction.

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#28851448   2017/08/30 Save this To Up

Dietary arachidonic acid increases deleterious effects of amyloid-β oligomers on learning abilities and expression of AMPA receptors: putative role of the ACSL4-cPLA2 balance.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a crucial role in neuronal function, and the modification of these compounds in the brain could have an impact on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Despite the fact that arachidonic acid is the second foremost polyunsaturated fatty acid besides docosahexaenoic acid, its role and the regulation of its transfer and mobilization in the brain are poorly known.

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#28847478   2017/08/29 Save this To Up

Pharmacologically safe nano-micelles of Amphotericin B with lipids: NMR and molecular docking approach.

This study presents the mode of interaction, structural features and micellization of AmB with sodium deoxycholate sulphate (SDCS) as small lipid molecule at different ratios, as revealed by molecular docking simulations and NMR. AmB-SDCS micelles were synthesized by single pot rinsing method. Solid state (13)C NMR revealed hydrogen bonding as main interaction, occurring at different positions between AmB and SDCS at various ratios. Molecular docking elucidated that AmB-SDCS complex was stabilized by multiple hydrogen bonds as well as Van der Waals forces between SDCS and AmB. SDCS molecules wraps around the AmB in head to the tail fashion into a nano-micellar structure. AmB-SDCS micelles were stable after freeze drying and presented zeta potential values between -27.5 to -42.6 mV and particle size in the range of 63.9 to 203.1 nm, upon rehydration in water. Hematological toxicity of AmB was controlled by exposure vs release of drug from SDCS micelles and concentration of SDCS to envelop the drug. Hemolysis of human erythrocytes was significantly reduced as compared to market formulation Fungizone® and pure AmB. This study explained the chemical interaction for micellization of AmB in lipids which can have greater implications to design toxicologically safe formulations of hydrophobic drugs.

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