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Circulation of Rift Valley Fever Virus Antibody in Cattle during Inter-Epizootic/Epidemic Periods in Selected Regions of Tanzania.

Tanzania is one of the sub-Saharan countries that have experienced a number of Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks at intervals of 10-20 years since the first isolation of the virus during the early 1930s. Recent studies have reported serological evidence of inter epizootic/epidemic period circulation of RVF virus (RVFV) in livestock and humans. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional survey in Tanzania during 2015/16 to further explore the possibility that RVFV was circulating among cattle during the Inter epizootic/epidemic period. A total of 443 cattle samples were collected in Manyara, Dodoma, Singida, and Mbeya regions of Tanzania. The samples were tested for RVFV antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit and a plaque reduction neutralization test. Serum samples were also tested for RVFV viral RNA by an RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. An overall RVFV seroprevalence rate of 7.7% (34/443) was detected by ELISA among cattle in all four regions. The Mbeya region cattle had the highest seroprevalence of 26.4% (23/87), followed by Dodoma 5.9% (10/171) and lastly Singida 0.9% (1/101). Of 33 ELISA antibody-positive samples, only 0.2% (1/443) had IgM antibody. Of 36 ELISA antibody-positive and doubtful samples, 32 were positive for neutralizing antibody with titers between 10 and > 10,240. None of the samples were positive for RVFV viral RNA by RT-PCR. The detection of RVFV antibodies in cattle suggested that these animals were involved in an enzootic cycle during the interepidemic period and that the high antibody titers may confer protection of cattle against RVFV.

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Hantavirus infection in Iranian patients suspected to viral hemorrhagic fever.

Hantaviruses are a group of emerging pathogens causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. This study was conducted to investigate Hantavirus infection among Iranian viral hemorrhagic fever suspected patients.

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Development of an E2 ELISA Methodology to Assess Chikungunya Seroprevalence in Patients from an Endemic Region of Mexico.

Chikungunya fever is a debilitating disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) that can result in long-lasting arthralgias. The early diagnosis of CHIKV relies on PCR during the acute infection phase to allow differential diagnosis with other co-circulating arboviruses such as dengue and Zika. Alternatively, serology can support diagnosis and provide epidemiological information on current and past outbreaks. Many commercial serological ELISA assays are based on the inactivated whole CHIKV, but their sensitivity and specificity show great variability. We produced recombinant CHIKV E2 that is suitable for ELISA assays, which was used for the serodiagnosis of CHIKV infections occurring in an arbovirus endemic Mexican region within Michoacán state. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016-2017; sera was obtained from 15 healthy donors and 68 patients presenting undifferentiated febrile illness. Serum samples were screened by RT-PCR and by our in-house ELISA assay. Our results indicate that IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV E2 antibodies were detected with our ELISA assay with higher sensitivity than a commercially available CHIKV ELISA kit. Our simple and sensitive ELISA assay for the serodiagnosis of CHIKV infections can be applied to population-based seroprevalence surveys and has potential for monitoring vaccine immunogenicity in CHIKV vaccine clinical trials.

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Goat Anti-Human TOM1L1 SR Goat Anti-Human E2F7, (in Goat Anti-Human LRP5, (in Goat Anti-Human PARK2, (i Goat Anti-Human SEL1L, (i Goat Anti-Human BIN1, (in Goat Anti-Human TIRAP, (i Goat Anti-Mouse DIO2, (in Goat Anti- IFNAR2, (inter Goat Anti-Mouse Rab17 (mo Goat Anti-Human Gelsolin Goat Anti- CHKB, (interna

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Evaluation of the indirect and IgM-capture anti-human cytomegalovirus IgM ELISA methods as confirmed by cytomegalovirus IgG avidity.

Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy often results in congenital CMV infection with severe clinical complications. IgM antibodies are one of the indices of primary infection. The IgG avidity index (AI) is also known to remain low for 3 months after primary infection. Here, we evaluated and compared the performance of CMV IgM and IgG avidity assays. Because sensitivity and specificity reportedly differ between CMV IgM kits, CMV IgM detection was compared between the two commercially available ELISA kits that are most commonly used in Japan. Sera for CMV IgM were first screened using a traditional indirect ELISA kit. Selected samples were then tested for CMV IgM and CMV AI using a CMV IgM-capture ELISA kit and a CMV IgG avidity assay, respectively. The rate of concordance between the IgM kits was 89% (42/47), indicating the absence of any significant difference. Most of the CMV IgM-positive plasma samples showed high CMV IgG AI; however, 18 commercially available plasma samples with low CMV IgG AI were all CMV IgM-positive. One plausible explanation for this discrepancy is that the duration of low IgG AI is shorter than that of IgM positivity. Alternatively, CMV IgM tests may generate pseudo-positive readouts in cases of congenital infection. Nevertheless, our study confirms that CMV IgG AI can be a reliable indicator of CMV primary infection.

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Retrospective Analysis of Serology Results from Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine Parasitology Laboratory from 2007 to 2017

is a common apicomplexan parasite of humans and can cause significant morbidity and mortality due to congenital transmission and in patients with immune deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate serology results of 11 years and to determine compatibility of serologic diagnosis methods.

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Comparative Serological Study for the Prevalence of Anti-MERS Coronavirus Antibodies in High- and Low-Risk Groups in Qatar.

Infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) could be asymptomatic or cause mild influenza-like illness. Therefore, the prevalence of MERS-CoV infections in the general population could be underestimated, which necessitates active surveillance to determine the epidemiological importance of asymptomatic cases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of various serological assays and to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-MERS-CoV antibodies in high- and low-risk groups in Qatar. A total of 4858 samples were screened, including 4719 samples collected from healthy blood donors (BD) over a period of five years (2012-2016), 135 samples from baseline case contacts (CC) collected from individuals in close contact with three positive PCR-confirmed patients (CP), and four samples from MERS-CoV CP. Initial screening using anti-MERS-CoV IgG (IgG rS1-ELISA kit) revealed ten reactive samples from BD (10/4719, 0.21%), one from CC (1/135, 0.74%), and three from CP (3/4, 75%). Samples from CP but not from BD were also reactive by whole-virus anti-MERS-CoV IgG ( = 3/4) and IgM ( = 1/4) indirect immunefluorescent tests (IIFT) and pseudoparticle neutralization test (ppNT). The reactive sample from CC was also confirmed by ppNT. Surprisingly, one out of thirteen (7.7%) randomly selected IgG rS1-ELISA-negative BD samples from the initial screening was reactive by the IgM-IIFT (but not by the IgG-IIFT) and was subsequently confirmed by ppNT. All IgG rS1-ELISA-reactive samples from BD exhibited considerable reactivity to the four circulating human coronaviruses (HKU1, OC43, 229E, and NL63). Cross-reactivity with SARS was only reported for samples from CP using IgG and IgM-IIFT. In conclusion, we report a low prevalence of anti-MERS antibodies in the general population, which coincides with the low number of all reported cases by the time of our study (2017) in Qatar ( = 21). The false-positive results and the observed cross-reactivity between MERS-CoV and other circulating human coronavirus necessitate more detailed evaluation of available serological assays.

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Performance of Commercially Available Serological Screening Tests for Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Infection in Brazil.

Serological screening for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is usually performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), particle agglutination, or chemiluminescence assay kits. Due to an antigen matrix improvement entailing the use of new HTLV antigens and changes in the format of HTLV screening tests, as well as newly introduced chemiluminescence assays (CLIAs), a systematic evaluation of the accuracy of currently available commercial tests is warranted. We aimed to assess the performance of commercially available screening tests for HTLV infection diagnosis. A diagnostic accuracy study was conducted on a panel of 397 plasma samples: 200 HTLV-negative plasma samples, 170 HTLV-positive plasma samples, and 27 plasma samples indeterminate by Western blotting (WB). WB-indeterminate samples (i.e., those yielding no specific bands for HTLV-1 and/or HTLV-2) were assessed by PCR, and the results were used to compare agreement among the commercially available ELISA screening tests. For performance analysis, WB-indeterminate samples were excluded, resulting in a final study panel of 370 samples. Three ELISA kits (Murex HTLV-1/2 [Murex], anti-HTLV-1/2 SYM Solution [SYM Solution], and Gold ELISA HTLV-1/2 [Gold ELISA]) and one CLIA kit (Architect rHTLV-1/2) were evaluated. All screening tests demonstrated 100% sensitivity. Concerning the HTLV-negative samples, the SYM Solution and Gold ELISA kits had specificity values of >99.5%, while the Architect rHTLV-1/2 test presented 98.1% specificity, followed by Murex, which had a specificity of 92.0%. Regarding the 27 samples with WB-indeterminate results, after PCR confirmation, all ELISA kits showed 100% sensitivity but low specificity. Accuracy findings were corroborated by the use of Cohen's kappa value, which evidenced slight and fair agreement between PCR analysis and ELISAs for HTLV infection diagnosis. Based on the data, we believe that all evaluated tests can be safely used for HTLV infection screening.

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Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect immunofluorescence assay for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

The study aimed to compare enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

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