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#29028836   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Affected pathways and transcriptional regulators in gene expression response to an ultra-marathon trail: Global and independent activity approaches.

Gene expression (GE) analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT) represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US). The results obtained were decomposed by means of an independent component analysis (ICA) targeting independent expression modes. We observed significant differences in the expression levels of 5,084 protein coding genes resulting in an overrepresentation of 14% of the human biological pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. These were mainly clustered on terms related with protein synthesis repression, altered immune system and infectious diseases related mechanisms. In a second analysis, 27 out of the 196 transcriptional regulators (TRs) included in the Open Regulatory Annotation database were overrepresented. Among these TRs, we identified transcription factors from the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) family EPAS1 (p< 0.01) and HIF1A (p<0.001), and others jointly described in the gluconeogenesis program such as HNF4 (p< 0.001), EGR1 (p<0.001), CEBPA (p< 0.001) and a highly specific TR, YY1 (p<0.01). The five independent components, obtained from ICA, further revealed a down-regulation of 10 genes distributed in the complex I, III and V from the electron transport chain. This mitochondrial activity reduction is compatible with HIF-1 system activation. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, known to be regulated by HIF, also emerged (p<0.05). Additionally, and related to the brain rewarding circuit, the endocannabinoid signalling pathway was overrepresented (p<0.05).

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#29018243   2017/10/11 Save this To Up

6E11, a highly selective inhibitor of Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1, protects cells against cold hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.

Necroptosis is a programmed cell death pathway that has been shown to be of central pathophysiological relevance in multiple disorders (hepatitis, brain and cardiac ischemia, pancreatitis, viral infection and inflammatory diseases). Necroptosis is driven by two serine threonine kinases, RIPK1 (Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 1) and RIPK3, and a pseudo-kinase MLKL (Mixed Lineage Kinase domain-Like) associated in a multi-protein complex called necrosome. In order to find new inhibitors for use in human therapy, a chemical library containing highly diverse chemical structures was screened using a cell-based assay. The compound 6E11, a natural product derivative, was characterized as a positive hit. Interestingly, this flavanone compound: inhibits necroptosis induced by death receptors ligands TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor) or TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand); is an extremely selective inhibitor, among kinases, of human RIPK1 enzymatic activity with a nM Kd; has a non-ATP competitive mode of action and a novel putative binding site; is weakly cytotoxic towards human primary blood leukocytes or retinal pigment epithelial cells at effective concentrations; protects human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) from cold hypoxia/reoxygenation injury more effectively than necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and Nec-1s. Altogether, these data demonstrate that 6E11 is a novel potent small molecular inhibitor of RIPK1-driven necroptosis.

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#29017854   2017/10/11 Save this To Up

PEGylated TRAIL ameliorates experimental inflammatory arthritis by regulation of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells.

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand that can induce apoptosis in cells expressing its cognate death receptors (DRs). Previously, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of recombinant human TRAIL in experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) models. However, the mechanisms of how DR-mediated apoptosis elicits these actions is not known. Here, we show that systemically administering a potent, long-acting PEGylated TRAIL (TRAILPEG) is profoundly anti-rheumatic against two complementary experimental RA mouse models, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), via targeting IL-17 secreting Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Systemic administration of TRAILPEG after disease onset ameliorated the severity of inflammatory arthritis including arthritis indices, paw thickness, cartilage damage and neutrophil infiltration in both CIA and CAIA models. Additionally, the levels of inflammatory molecules (p-p65, ICAM-1, Cox-2, MMP3, and iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17) and accumulation of activated macrophages were significantly reduced after the TRAILPEG treatment. Importantly, TRAILPEG decreased the number of pro-inflammatory Th17 cells in inflamed arthritic joints through TRAIL-induced apoptosis while increasing anti-inflammatory Treg population in vivo. These results suggest that TRAILPEG ameliorates autoimmunity by targeting the Th 17-Tregs axis, making it a promising candidate drug for the treatment of RA.

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#28993697   2017/10/10 Save this To Up

N-terminal gelsolin fragment potentiates TRAIL mediated death in resistant hepatoma cells.

TNF-α related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively kills tumor cells, without damaging normal cells. TRAIL receptors facilitate induction of apoptosis for selective elimination of malignant cells. However, some cancer cells have developed resistances to TRAIL which limits anticancer potential. Gelsolin, a multifunctional actin-binding protein, mediates cell death involving the TRAIL receptors in the hepatic stellate cell line, LX2. Here, we have shown that conditioned medium (CM) containing gelsolin fragments or an N-terminal gelsolin fragment (amino acid residues 1-70) in the presence of TRAIL impairs cell viability of TRAIL resistant transformed human hepatocytes (HepG2). Cell growth regulation by CM and TRAIL was associated with the modulation of p53/Mdm2, Erk and Akt phosphorylation status. The use of N-terminal gelsolin peptide1-70 alone or in combination with TRAIL, induced inhibition of Akt phosphorylation and key survival factors, Mdm2 and Survivin. Treatment of cells with an Akt activator SC79 or p53 siRNA reduced the effects of the N-terminal gelsolin fragment and TRAIL. Together, our study suggests that the N-terminal gelsolin fragment enhances TRAIL-induced loss of cell viability by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and promoting p53 function, effecting cell survival.

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#28990932   2017/10/09 Save this To Up

Uromodulin p.Cys147Trp mutation drives kidney disease by activating ER stress and apoptosis.

Uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD) is caused by mutations in the uromodulin (UMOD) gene that result in a misfolded form of UMOD protein, which is normally secreted by nephrons. In UAKD patients, mutant UMOD is poorly secreted and accumulates in the ER of distal kidney epithelium, but its role in disease progression is largely unknown. Here, we modeled UMOD accumulation in mice by expressing the murine equivalent of the human UMOD p.Cys148Trp point mutation (UmodC147W/+ mice). Like affected humans, these UmodC147W/+ mice developed spontaneous and progressive kidney disease with organ failure over 24 weeks. Analysis of diseased kidneys and purified UMOD-producing cells revealed early activation of the PKR-like ER kinase/activating transcription factor 4 (PERK/ATF4) ER stress pathway, innate immune mediators, and increased apoptotic signaling, including caspase-3 activation. Unexpectedly, we also detected autophagy deficiency. Human cells expressing UMOD p.Cys147Trp recapitulated the findings in UmodC147W/+ mice, and autophagy activation with mTOR inhibitors stimulated the intracellular removal of aggregated mutant UMOD. Human cells producing mutant UMOD were susceptible to TNF-α- and TRAIL-mediated apoptosis due to increased expression of the ER stress mediator tribbles-3. Blocking TNF-α in vivo with the soluble recombinant fusion protein TNFR:Fc slowed disease progression in UmodC147W/+ mice by reducing active caspase-3, thereby preventing tubule cell death and loss of epithelial function. These findings reveal a targetable mechanism for disease processes involved in UAKD.

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#28981101   2017/10/05 Save this To Up

Reciprocal amplification of caspase-3 activity by nuclear export of a putative human RNA-modifying protein, PUS10 during TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Pus10 is a pseudouridine synthase present in Archaea and Eukarya, but not in Bacteria and yeast. It has been suggested that the human PUS10 (DOBI) gene is needed during TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We analyzed the role of PUS10 in TRAIL-induced apoptosis by immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and several indicators of apoptosis. We examined several TRAIL-sensitive cell lines and we also examined some resistant cell lines after treatment with cycloheximide. PUS10 is mainly present in the nucleus. Early during apoptosis, PUS10 translocates to mitochondria via CRM1-mediated export with the concurrent release of cytochrome c and SMAC. Caspase-3 is required for PUS10 translocation, which reciprocally amplifies the activity of caspase-3 through the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway. This suggests that in addition to cytoplasmic factors, nuclear factors also have a direct role in the major apoptosis pathways. However, p53 is not involved in TRAIL-induced PUS10 movement. The caspase-3-mediated movement of PUS10 and the release of mitochondrial contents enhancing caspase-3 activity creates a feedback amplification loop for caspase-3 action. Therefore, any defect in the movement or interactions of PUS10 would reduce the TRAIL sensitivity of tumor cells.

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#28977846   2017/10/05 Save this To Up

Downregulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein by '7-Benzylidenenaltrexone maleate' sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential biological anticancer agent. However, a wide range of human primary cancers, including pancreatic cancer, display resistance to apoptosis induction by TRAIL. Therefore, this resistance needs to be overcome to allow TRAIL to be successfully used in cancer therapy. In this study, we performed a compound screen to isolate TRAIL sensitizers and found that one of the identified compounds, 7-benzylidenenaltrexone maleate (BNTX), sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death. The combination of BNTX with TRAIL promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol with caspase activation and a resulting increase in annexin V-stained cells. From a mechanistic perspective, we found that BNTX downregulated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression when used in combination with TRAIL, and found that TRAIL-induced apoptosis was augmented by siRNA-mediated knockdown of XIAP. We further demonstrated that BNTX promoted the ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation of XIAP protein via protein kinase C (PKC) alpha/AKT pathway inhibition. Moreover, combined treatment by BNTX with TRAIL suppressed growth of pancreatic tumor xenograft of animal model. Therefore, we suggest that inhibitor of apoptosis protein-mediated resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to anticancer therapeutics can be overcome by inhibiting the PKCα/AKT pathway.

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#28969041   2017/10/03 Save this To Up

Breast cancer suppression by aplysin is associated with inhibition of PI3K/AKT/FOXO3a pathway.

Aplysin, a bromosesquiterpene isolated from Aplysia kurodai, was explored as a potential anti-breast cancer agent by us. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenic effect of aplysin remain unclear. Here, aplysin was found to remarkably suppress tumor growth in vivo, inhibit cell proliferation and promote apoptosis in vitro. Additionally, we demonstrated that aplysin attained these effects in part by down-regulating PI3K/AKT/FOXO3a signaling pathway. Aplysin treatment inhibited the phosphorylation levels of AKT (Ser-473) and AKT-dependent phosphorylation of FOXO3a (Ser-253) in breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues. The expression levels of FOXO3a-targeted genes were also destabilized by aplysin, cyclin D1 and Bcl-XL were declined; however, p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1), Bim, TRAIL and FasL were increased both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by an activator and silencing of FOXO3a by shRNA protected the cells from aplysin mediated growth suppression and apoptosis. In summary, our findings revealed that aplysin could suppress breast cancer progression by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/FOXO3a pathway, thereby suggesting a potential role of aplysin as a chemoprevention drug for patients with breast cancer.

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#28969030   2017/10/03 Save this To Up

Transmembrane TNF-α promotes activation-induced cell death by forward and reverse signaling.

Secretory tumor necrosis factor-alpha (sTNF-α) is known to mediate activation- induced cell death (AICD). However, the role of tmTNF-α in AICD is still obscure. Here, we demonstrated that tmTNF-α expression significantly increased accompanied with enhanced apoptosis during AICD in Jurkat and primary human T cells. Knockdown or enhancement of tmTNF-α expression in activated T cells suppressed or promoted AICD, respectively. Treatment of activated T cells with exogenous tmTNF-α significantly augmented AICD, indicating that tmTNF-α as an effector molecule mediates AICD. As tmTNF-α can function as a receptor, an anti-TNF-α polyclonal antibody was used to trigger reverse signaling of tmTNF-α. This antibody treatment upregulated the expression of Fas ligand, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and tmTNF-α to amplify AICD, and promoted activated T cells expressing death receptor 4, TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 to enhance their sensitivity to AICD. Knockdown of TNFR1 or TNFR2 expression totally blocked tmTNF-α reverse signaling increased sensitivity to sTNF-α- or tmTNF-α-mediated AICD, respectively. Our results indicate that tmTNF-α functions as a death ligand in mediation of AICD and as a receptor in sensitization of activated T cells to AICD. Targeting tmTNF-α in activated T cells may be helpful in facilitating AICD for treatment of autoimmune diseases.

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#28962646   2017/09/30 Save this To Up

pIL6-TRAIL-engineered umbilical cord mesenchymal/stromal stem cells are highly cytotoxic for myeloma cells both in vitro and in vivo.

Mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSCs) are favorably regarded in anti-cancer cytotherapies for their spontaneous chemotaxis toward inflammatory and tumor environments associated with an intrinsic cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Placenta-derived or TRAIL-engineered adipose MSCs have been shown to exert anti-tumor activity in both in-vitro and in-vivo models of multiple myeloma (MM) while TRAIL-transduced umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs appear efficient inducers of apoptosis in a few solid tumors. However, apoptosis is not selective for cancer cells since specific TRAIL receptors are also expressed by a number of normal cells. To overcome this drawback, we propose to transduce UC-MSCs with a bicistronic vector including the TRAIL sequence under the control of IL-6 promoter (pIL6) whose transcriptional activation is promoted by the MM milieu.

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