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           Search results for: Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-165 VEGF-165   

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Optimized Expression and Characterization of a Novel Fully Human Bispecific Single-Chain Diabody Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor165 and Programmed Death-1 in and Evaluation of Antitumor Activity In Vivo.

Bispecific antibodies, which can bind to two different epitopes on the same or different antigens simultaneously, have recently emerged as attractive candidates for study in various diseases. Our present study successfully constructs and expresses a fully human, bispecific, single-chain diabody (BsDb) that can bind to vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) in . Under the optimal expression conditions (methanol concentration, 1%; pH, 4.0; inoculum density, OD600 = 4, and the induction time, 96 h), the maximum production level of this BsDb is achieved at approximately 20 mg/L. The recombinant BsDb is purified in one step using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column chromatography with a purity of more than 95%. Indirect enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and sandwich ELISA analyses show that purified BsDb can bind specifically to VEGF165 and PD-1 simultaneously with affinities of 124.78 nM and 25.07 nM, respectively. Additionally, the BsDb not only effectively inhibits VEGF165-stimulated proliferation, migration, and tube formation in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), but also significantly improves proliferation and INF-γ production of activated T cells by blocking PD-1/PD-L1 co-stimulation. Furthermore, the BsDb displays potent antitumor activity in mice bearing HT29 xenograft tumors by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and activating immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. Based on these results, we have prepared a potential bispecific antibody drug that can co-target both VEGF165 and PD-1 for the first time. This work provides a stable foundation for the development of new strategies by the combination of an angiogenesis inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade for cancer therapy.

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Anticancer effects of novel thalidomide analogs in A549 cells through inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and non-small-cell lung cancer is the most common form of lung cancer. Several studies had shown that thalidomide has potential for prevention and therapy of cancer. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of two novel thalidomide analogs in human lung cancer A549 cells. The antiproliferative, antimigratory, and apoptotic effects in A549 cells induced by thalidomide analogs were examined. In addition, their effects on the expression of mRNAs encoding vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were evaluated. Their influence on the tumor volume in nude mice was also determined. Results revealed that thalidomide analogs exhibited antiproliferative, antimigratory, and apoptotic activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide drug. Furthermore, analogs 1 and 2 suppressed the expression levels of VEGF165 by 42% and 53.2% and those of MMP-2 by 45% and 52%, respectively. Thalidomide analogs 1 and 2 also reduced the tumor volume by 30.11% and 53.52%, respectively. Therefore, this study provides evidence that thalidomide analogs may serve as a new therapeutic option for treating lung cancer.

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Co-expression of fibulin-5 and VEGF165 increases long-term patency of synthetic vascular grafts seeded with autologous endothelial cells.

Small caliber synthetic vascular grafts are commonly used for bypass surgery and dialysis access sites but have high failure rates because of neointima formation and thrombosis. Seeding synthetic grafts with endothelial cells (ECs) provides a biocompatible surface that may prevent graft failure. However, EC detachment following exposure to blood flow still remains a major obstacle in the development of biosynthetic grafts. We tested the hypothesis that induced expression by the seeded EC, of vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165) and of fibulin-5, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that has a crucial role in elastin fiber organization and increase EC adherence to surfaces, may improve long-term graft patency. Autologous ECs were isolated from venous segments, and were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing fibulin-5 and VEGF165. The modified cells were seeded on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts and implanted in a large animal model. Three months after transplantation, all grafts seeded with modified EC were patent on a selective angiography, whereas only a third of the control grafts were patent. Similar results were shown at 6 months. Thus, seeding ePTFE vascular grafts with genetically modified EC improved long-term small caliber graft patency. The biosynthetic grafts may provide a novel therapeutic modality for patients with peripheral vascular disease and patients requiring vascular access for hemodialysis.

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Characterization and cancer cell targeted imaging properties of human antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody conjugated CdTe/ZnS quantum dots.

High luminescence quantum yield water-soluble CdTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) stabilized with thioglycolic acid were synthesized. QDs were chemically coupled to fully humanized antivascular endothelial growth factor165 monoclonal antibodies to produce fluorescent probes. These probes can be used to assay the biological affinity of the antibody. The properties of QDs conjugated to an antibody were characterized by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry, fluorescent spectrophotometry, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Cell-targeted imaging was performed in human breast cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity of bare QDs and fluorescent probes was evaluated in the MCF-7 cells with an MTT viability assay. The results proved that CdTe/ZnS QD-monoclonal antibody nanoprobes had been successfully prepared with excellent spectral properties in target detections. Surface modification by ZnS shell could mitigate the cytotoxicity of cadmium-based QDs. The therapeutic effects of antivascular endothelial growth factor antibodies towards cultured human cancer cells were confirmed by MTT assay.

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Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair.

Insufficient early vascularization in biological meshes, resulting in limited host tissue incorporation, is thought to be the primary cause for the failure of abdominal wall defect repair after implantation. The sustained release of exogenous angiogenic factors from a biocompatible nanomaterial might be a way to overcome this limitation. In the study reported here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalized by plasma polymerization to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165). The novel VEGF165-controlled released system was incorporated into porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) to construct a composite scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating varying amounts of VEGF165-loaded functionalized MWNT were characterized in vitro. At 5 weight percent MWNT, the scaffolds exhibited optimal properties and were implanted in rats to repair abdominal wall defects. PSIS scaffolds incorporating VEGF165-loaded MWNT (VEGF-MWNT-PSIS) contributed to early vascularization from 2-12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT-PSIS).

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[VEGF165-induced angiogenesis by regulating intracellular free Mg2+ in HUVECs].

The mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165) on intracellular free magnesium ([Mg2+]i) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated.

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[Construction of eukaryotic expression vector of fusion protein pEGFP/hVEGF165 and its expression in vascular endothelial cells].

To construct the plasmid of human vascular endothelial cell growth factor165 and green fluorescence protein report gene eukaryotic expression vector of fusion protein pEGFP /hVEGF165, and to detect its expression in vascular endothelial cells.

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Soluble Fas ligand inhibits angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis.

The characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathology include the infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, the proliferation of synovial cells, and the presence of extensive angiogenesis, referred to as rheumatoid pannus. Fas ligand is critical to the homeostatic regulation of the immune response, but its role in the angiogenic process of RA remains to be defined. In this study, we investigated whether soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) induces synoviocyte apoptosis and regulates angiogenesis of endothelial cells in RA. The levels of sFasL were elevated in the synovial fluids of RA patients when compared to those of osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and they correlated inversely with vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165) concentrations. sFasL, ranging from 10 to 100 ng/ml, induced the apoptosis of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in vitro, and thereby decreased VEGF165 production. In addition, sFasL inhibited VEGF165-induced migration and chemotaxis of endothelial cells to basal levels in a manner independent of the Fas-mediated cell death. sFasL dose-dependently suppressed the VEGF165-stimulated increase in pAkt expression in endothelial cells, which might be associated with its anti-migratory effect on endothelial cells. Moreover, sFasL strongly inhibited neovascularization in the Matrigel plug in vivo. Our data suggest that sFasL shows anti-angiogenic activity within RA joints not only by inducing apoptosis of VEGF165-producing cells but also by blocking VEGF165-induced migration of endothelial cells, independent of Fas-mediated apoptosis.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor165-regulated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines invasion and migration involve expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2.

The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overexpression on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved were investigated, and the correlation between the expression of VEGF and MMP-2 in NPC evaluated. The NPC cells were transfected with PAd-trackVEGF165 plasmid. The expression levels of VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA and protein in NPC cells were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. It was found that the expression of VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in NPC cells after transfection of VEGF165. It was concluded that the expression of VEGF was correlated to the in vitro invasion of NPC cells, and the induction of MMP-2 by VEGF was a key process of NPC cell invasion.

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Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 enhance VEGF121 stimulated signal transduction by the VEGFR-2 receptor.

The neuropilin-1 (np1) receptor binds the 165 amino-acid form of vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165) and functions as an enhancer that potentiates VEGF165 signaling via the VEGFR-2 tyrosine-kinase receptor. To study the mechanism by which neuropilins potentiate VEGF activity we produced a VEGF165 mutant (VEGF165KF) that binds to neuropilins but displays a much lower affinity toward VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. VEGF165KF failed to induce VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in cells lacking neuropilins. However, in the presence of np1, VEGF165KF bound weakly to VEGFR-2, induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, and activated ERK1/2. Interestingly, VEGF165KF did not promote formation of VEGFR-2/np1 complexes nor did high concentrations of VEGF165KF inhibit VEGF165 induced formation of such complexes, suggesting that VEGF165 does not stabilize VEGFR-2/np1 complexes by forming bridges spanning VEGFR-2 and np1. VEGF121 is a VEGF form that does not bind to neuropilins. Surprisingly, both np1 and neuropilin-2 (np2) enhanced VEGF121-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and VEGF121-induced proliferation of endothelial cells. The enhancement of VEGF121 activity by np1 was accompanied by a 10-fold increase in binding affinity to VEGFR-2 and was not associated with the formation of new VEGFR-2/np1 complexes. These observations suggest that neuropilins enhance the activity of VEGF forms that do not bind to neuropilins, indicate that np2 is a functional VEGF receptor, and imply that spontaneously formed VEGFR-2/np1 complexes suffice for efficient neuropilin mediated enhancement of VEGF activity.

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