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           Search results for: Human Vitronectin Total Antigen Assay   

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#25527349   2015/05/18 Save this To Up

Evaluation of Lp-PLA2 mass, vitronectin and PAI-1 activity levels in patients with preeclampsia.

The aim of the current study is to determine, correlate and compare the plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), vitronectin (Vn), Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) levels in early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia and in control pregnant women.

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Inhibitory Mouse Monoclon Inhibitory Mouse Monoclon Human PAI-1 (vitronectin Mouse Anti-Lipoprotein Li Resorufin Oleate, Fluorog Inhibitory mouse monoclo Inhibitory mouse monoclo BCIP INT Solution Sterile filtered goat se Sterile filtered rat ser Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon

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#20539903   2010/08/04 Save this To Up

The in vitro effects of niacin on platelet biomarkers in human volunteers.

Niacin is a natural pyridine derivative, proven to favorably modulate the blood lipid profile by increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and by reducing total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and Lp (a) lipoprotein concentrations. Considering that platelet activity is important in predicting vascular outcomes, and that HDL heavily constitutes platelet cellular membranes, we sought to evaluate the effect of niacin on human platelet activity indices. The blood obtained from 30 aspirin-naïve volunteers was preincubated with escalating concentrations of niacin in vitro. Platelet tests included whole blood and plasma aggregometry, rapid cartridge-based analyser, expression of major surface receptors by flow cytometry, and plasma prostaglandins by ELISA. Preincubation of blood with niacin at 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mM resulted in significant inhibition of maximal adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- (p=0.03), and collagen-induced platelet aggregation (p=0.01), and reduced activity by VerifyNow (p=0.007) bedside analyser. Surface platelet PAR-1 (MoAb WEDE-15; p=0.04), and vitronectin (CD51/CD61; p=0.02) receptors were up-regulated. Niacin was associated with a two- to three-fold increase of thromboxane B2, prostaglandins D2, and E2. Formation of platelet-monocyte microparticles (CD14+CD151), and expression of PECAM-1 (CD31), thrombospondin (CD36), GP IIb/IIIa (CD41a) antigen, and activity with MoAb PAC-1, GPIb (CD42b), P-selectin (CD62p), LAMP-3 (CD63), LAMP-1 (CD107a), CD40-ligand (CD154), GP37 (CD165), were not affected by niacin, suggesting no effect on prostacyclin release. In conclusion, niacin in vitro affects platelet activity by mildly inhibiting aggregation, and stimulating significant prostaglandin release, with mostly intact major platelet receptor expression. The effect of niacin is unique, differs from other known antiplatelet agents, and suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic combination, particularly in patients with low levels of HDL-C. These preliminary data, while intriguing, require confirmation in subjects receiving orally dosed extended-release niacin in order to determine whether these findings are clinically relevant.

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#18508692   2008/05/29 Save this To Up

Intact and cleaved uPAR forms: diagnostic and prognostic value in cancer.

The cellular receptor for urokinase, uPAR, localizes its ligand, uPA, and thereby the plasminogen activation, to the cell surface. uPA also cleaves uPAR, liberating the ligand-binding domain I, and thereby inactivates the binding potential of uPAR for both uPA and vitronectin. The uPA-catalyzed cleavage of uPAR is fast on the cell surface, when uPA is bound to a neighboring uPAR molecule. uPAR can be shed from the cell surface. However, the soluble form cannot be cleaved by uPA. Glycolipid-anchored and soluble forms of intact, uPAR(I-III), and cleaved receptor, uPAR(II-III) and uPAR(I), have been identified in tissue and body fluids. It is well-established, that the total amount of all uPAR forms is a strong prognostic marker in different types of cancer. Using immunoassays, measuring the individual uPAR forms, has revealed that the cleaved uPAR forms are even stronger prognostic markers and have diagnostic utility. This review will focus on the mechanism of uPAR cleavage and the functional consequences, as well as the clinical applicability of cleaved uPAR forms.

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#16546241   2006/11/24 Save this To Up

Effects of escalating doses of tirofiban on platelet aggregation and major receptor expression in diabetic patients: hitting the TARGET in the TENACITY trial?

Ongoing search for the optimal dosing regimens, and valid concerns that some GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors may cause rebound platelet activation are limiting the use of these agents in patients with acute vascular events.

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#14963743   2004/02/13 Save this To Up

Plasminogen activation in neurofibromatosis 2-associated and sporadic schwannomas.

Schwannomas are usually benign tumours which occur sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), an autosomal dominant disorder. Invasiveness and higher proliferative potential compared to sporadic tumours are features of NF2-associated schwannomas.

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#11919546   2002/03/28 Save this To Up

Eicosanoids in sickle cell disease: potential relevance of neutrophil leukotriene B4 to disease pathophysiology.

Neutrophil activation with the release of intracellular granule contents has been observed in sickle cell disease (SCD). Because leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), a 5-lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid in neutrophils, is a chemoattractant and enhances neutrophil adhesion to endothelium, we assessed plasma levels of this metabolite in controls (n = 9) and individuals with SCD, SS genotype, both in basal "steady state" (n = 37) and during episodes of vaso-occlusion (n = 10) and acute chest syndrome (n = 5). Thirteen patients with SCD, SC genotype, in steady state were also studied. Although no significant differences were noted between the control (136 +/- 32 fmol/mL) and SC genotype (177 +/- 83 fmol/mL, P >.15), LTB(4) levels were markedly increased in patients with SS genotype in basal steady state (207 +/- 64 fmol/mL, P <.003) compared with those in controls. Values were further increased during vaso-occlusion (264 +/- 94 fmol/mL) and acute chest syndrome (363 +/- 124 fmol/mL). These levels were significantly different from measurements taken during steady state (P <.04 and P <.0001, respectively). No correlation was noted between LTB(4) level and total white cell or neutrophil count. Additionally, the significant correlation noted in SCD between increased levels of plasma LTB(4) and soluble L-selectin (P <.03) reflects neutrophil activation. We also observed an effect of LTB(4) on red cell-endothelial adhesion at concentrations that appear clinically relevant (1-10 pmol/mL) with concomitant up-regulation of mRNA for the endothelial vitronectin receptor. These properties of LTB(4) are relevant to disease pathophysiology, providing further evidence of the contribution of the neutrophil to the proinflammatory and proadhesive phenotype in SCD.

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#11744725   2002/02/25 Save this To Up

Vimentin exposed on activated platelets and platelet microparticles localizes vitronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor complexes on their surface.

Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), the primary inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), is found in plasma and platelets. PAI-1 circulates in complex with vitronectin (Vn), an interaction that stabilizes PAI-1 in its active conform. In this study, we examined the binding of platelet-derived Vn and PAI-1 to the surface of isolated platelets. Flow cytometry indicate that, like P-selectin, PAI-1, and Vn are found on the surface of thrombin- or calcium ionophore-activated platelets and platelet microparticles. The binding of PAI-1 to the activated platelet surface is Vn-dependent. Vn mediates the binding of PAI-1 to platelet surfaces through a high affinity (K(d) of 80 nm) binding interaction with the NH(2) terminus of vimentin, and this Vn-binding domain is expressed on the surface of activated platelets and platelet microparticles. Immunological and functional assays indicate that only -5% of the total PAI-1 in platelet releasates is functionally active, and it co-precipitates with Vn, and the vimentin-enriched cytoskeleton fraction of activated platelet debris. The remaining platelet PAI-1 is inactive, and does not associate with the cytoskeletal debris of activated platelets. Confocal microscopic analysis of platelet-rich plasma clots confirm the co-localization of PAI-1 with Vn and vimentin on the surface of activated platelets, and platelet microparticles. These findings suggest that platelet vimentin may regulate fibrinolysis in plasma and thrombi by binding platelet-derived Vn.PAI-1 complexes.

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#11169951   2001/02/22 Save this To Up

Regulation of urokinase plasminogen activator/plasmin-mediated invasion of melanoma cells by the integrin vitronectin receptor alphaVbeta3.

The integrin vitronectin receptor alphavbeta3 is a mediator of cellular migration and invasion and has been identified as a marker of progression in malignant melanoma. Using a human melanoma model, we have previously shown that this receptor was coordinately expressed with the receptor for the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR). In our present study, the link between these receptors was further investigated by assessing the effect of alphavbeta3 ligation on uPAR transcription and function. Using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we found that receptor ligation by immobilized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) induced a rapid increase (up to 4.5 fold) in uPAR mRNA levels, which was maximal 4 hr after cell attachment. An increase was also noted in plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) mRNA levels (2.7-fold), but none was noted in uPA levels. In addition, ligation of alphavbeta3 resulted in a significant increase in cell surface-associated plasmin levels, which coincided with a 2- to 3-fold increase in cell invasion as measured in the Matrigel invasion assay. This increase in invasion could in turn be abolished by antibodies directed to uPA and uPAR and by the plasmin inhibitors epsilon-aminocaproic acid and aprotinin. Furthermore, ligation of the integrin alphavbeta3 triggered a rapid increase of up to 12-fold in total cellular PKC activity, and this coincided with the redistribution of PKCbeta, but not PKCalpha, from the cytosol to the membrane. Treatment of the cells with the PKCbeta-specific inhibitor LY379196 blocked uPAR and PAI-1 mRNA induction and reduced the increase in cell invasion due to alphavbeta3 ligation, confirming the involvement of this isoform in the response. The results provide evidence that the vitronectin receptor can enhance invasion by regulating the uPAR/uPA/plasmin system of proteolysis and implicate PKCbeta as an intermediate in the activation pathway.

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#10743817   2000/05/09 Save this To Up

Expression of vitronectin and its integrin receptors in the synovial membrane-like interface tissue from aseptic loosening of total hip replacement.

To investigate expression of vitronectin (VN) and its integrin (Int) receptors in synovial membrane-like interface tissue (SMLIT) in aseptic loosening of total hip replacement (THR), and the potential role of VN-Int interaction in production of collagenase-3.

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#10723092   2000/05/31 Save this To Up

Regulation of alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta5 integrins by dexamethasone in normal human osteoblastic cells.

Long-term administration of pharmacological doses of glucocorticoids inhibits bone formation and results in osteoporosis. Since integrin-mediated cell-matrix interactions are essential for osteoblast function, we hypothesized that the detrimental effect of glucocorticoids on bone derived, at least in part, from decreased integrin-matrix interactions. Because alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 integrins can interact with several bone matrix proteins, we analyzed the effects of dexamethasone (Dex) on the expression of these integrins in normal human osteoblastic cells. We found adhesion of these cells to osteopontin and vitronectin to be dependent on alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5, respectively; this ligand specificity was not altered by Dex. The effects of Dex on the adhesion of human osteoblastic cells to osteopontin and vitronectin were biphasic with an increase after 2 days, followed by a decrease after 8 days of treatment. Consistently, surface alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 integrins, which were increased after 2 days of Dex treatment, were decreased after 8 days. Similarly, total cellular alphav, beta3, and beta5 proteins, which were increased by Dex early in the culture, were diminished after 8 days. Metabolic labeling studies indicated that Dex exhibited biphasic regulation on the biosynthesis of alphavbeta5, with stimulation observed during the second day of treatment, followed by inhibition during the 8th day of exposure. By contrast, the biosynthesis of alphavbeta3 was inhibited by Dex on day 1 and remained inhibited on day 8. Analysis of the mRNA indicated that alphav and beta5 levels were increased by Dex during early exposure (1-3 days), followed by inhibition after prolonged exposure (>/=7 days). By contrast, Dex decreased beta3 mRNA level at all the time points analyzed. Consistently, Dex decreased beta3 promoter activity after 1 day and persisted over 8-day period. By contrast, Dex stimulated beta5 promoter activity after 1 or 2 days but had no effect after 8 days. To further evaluate mechanism(s) leading to the decreased integrin expression after prolonged Dex treatment, mRNA stability was analyzed. Dex was found to accelerate the degradation of alphav, beta3 and beta5 mRNA after an 8-day treatment. Thus, the regulation of alphavbeta3 was dependent on transcription and posttranscriptional events whereas the expression of alphavbeta5 was dependent mainly on posttranscriptional events after prolonged Dex treatment. In conclusion, Dex exhibited time-dependent regulation on the expression of alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 integrins in normal human osteoblastic cells. Short-term exposure to Dex increased the levels of alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 on the surface and cell adhesion to osteopontin and vitronectin whereas long-term exposure to Dex decreased the expression of both integrins and inhibited the cell adhesion to matrix proteins.

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