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The balance of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-6·soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and IL-6·sIL-6R·sgp130 complexes allows simultaneous classic and trans-signaling.

Interleukin (IL-)6 is the major pro-inflammatory cytokine within the IL-6 family. IL-6 signals via glycoprotein 130 (gp130) and the membrane-bound or soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), referred to as classic or trans-signaling, respectively. Whereas inflammation triggers IL-6 expression, eventually rising to nanogram/ml serum levels, soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) and soluble gp130 (sgp130) are constitutively present in the upper nanogram/ml range. Calculations based on intermolecular affinities have suggested that systemic IL-6 is immediately trapped in IL-6·sIL-6R and IL-6·sIL-6R·sgp130 complexes, indicating that sIL-6R and sgp130 constitute a buffer system that increases the serum half-life of IL-6 or restricts systemic IL-6 signaling. However, this scenario has not been experimentally validated. Here, we quantified IL-6·sIL-6R and IL-6·sIL-6R·sgp130 complexes over a wide concentration range. The amounts of IL-6 used in this study reflect concentrations found during active inflammatory events. Our results indicated that most IL-6 is free and not complexed with sIL-6R or sgp130, indicating that the level of endogenous sgp130 in the bloodstream is not sufficient to block IL-6 trans-signaling via sIL-6R. Importantly, addition of the single-domain antibody VHH6, which specifically stabilizes IL-6·sIL-6R complexes but did not bind to IL-6 or sIL-6R alone, drove free IL-6 into IL-6·sIL-6R complexes and boosted trans-signaling but not classic signaling, demonstrating that endogenous sIL-6R has at least the potential to form complexes with IL-6. Our findings indicate that even though high concentrations of sIL-6R and sgp130 are present in human serum, the relative ratio of free IL-6 to IL-6·sIL-6R allows for simultaneous classic and trans-signaling.

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Circulating levels of sgp130 and sex hormones in male patients with coronary atherosclerotic disease.

Inflammation and endocrine disorders are considered as major pathogenic factors of coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD). Sgp130, a natural antagonist of IL-6 trans-signaling, and sex hormones, especially testosterone and estradiol, are prominently considered as anti-atherosclerotic. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between serum sgp130 and testosterone and estradiol in male CAD patients.

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The Role of IL-27 and its Receptor in the Pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and Anti-viral Immune Response.

Cytokines have been widely demonstrated to involve in the pathogenesis of AIDS and the mechanisms of antiretroviral therapy. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 cytokine family and has been shown to interfere HIV-1 virus replication with controversial findings. This study is to investigate the dynamic changes in plasma IL-27 level and cell surface IL-27 receptor expression in HIV/AIDS patients who underwent HAART.

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IL-6 trans-signaling is another pathway to upregulate Osteopontin.

Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-fibrotic molecule upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-6 functions downstream of IL-1β and has unique signal pathways: classic- or trans-signaling via membrane-bound IL-6R or soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R). We investigated the effect of IL-6 trans-signaling on the upregulation of OPN.

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Exploration of early-life candidate biomarkers for childhood asthma using antibody arrays.

Proteomic approaches identifying biomarkers have been applied to asthma to only a very limited extent.

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Enhanced LPS-induced activation of IL-27 signalling in sarcoidosis.

Granulomas in sarcoidosis have recently been described as containing Interleukin (IL)-27, one of the members of the IL-12 family of cytokines, which also includes IL-35. Levels of these cytokines and the IL-27 receptor subunits were hypothesised to differ between patients with sarcoidosis compared to healthy controls in peripheral blood.

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Oncostatin M promotes excitotoxicity by inhibiting glutamate uptake in astrocytes: implications in HIV-associated neurotoxicity.

Elevated levels of oncostatin M (OSM), an interleukin-6 cytokine family member, have been observed in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and Alzheimer's disease. However, the function of OSM in these disease conditions is unclear. Since deficient glutamate uptake by astrocytes is instrumental in HAND-associated neurotoxicity, we hypothesized that OSM impairs glutamate uptake in astrocytes and thereby promotes neuronal excitotoxicity.

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Abnormal gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes of depressed patients.

Abnormalities of protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors have been reported in plasma of depressed patients. In this study, we examined the role of cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in major depressive disorder (MDD). We determined the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and mRNA expression of their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes from 31 hospitalized MDD patients and 30 non-hospitalized normal control (NC) subjects. The subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Protein levels of cytokines were determined by ELISA, and mRNA levels in lymphocytes were determined by the qPCR method. We found that the mean mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, their receptors, TNFR1, TNFR2, IL-1R1 and the antagonist IL-1RA were significantly increased in the lymphocytes of MDD patients compared with NC. No significant differences in the lymphocyte mRNA levels of IL-1R2, IL-6R, and Gp130 were observed between MDD patients and NC. These studies suggest abnormal gene expression of these cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes of MDD patients, and that their mRNA expression levels in the lymphocytes could be a useful biomarker for depression.

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Novel inflammatory markers associated with cognitive performance: Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies.

We identified and validated several novel inflammatory markers of cognitive performance in community-living older persons. An exploratory study (n = 83) correlated 177 inflammatory markers assayed by Luminex with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and identified 8 inflammatory markers for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and correlations with MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and cognitive impairment in the validation study (n = 139). The validation study replicated the significant associations of soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (sIL-2Rα; p = 0.050), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2; p = 0.002) and soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130; p = 0.026) with MMSE, and sIL-2Rα (p = 0.019) and sgp130 (p < 0.001) with MoCA. Significant trends of associations of tertiles of sgp130, sIL-2Rα, and sTNFR2 were found with cognitive impairment. Highly elevated estimates of association of high versus low tertiles were obtained for sgp130 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-18.8), sIL-2Rα (OR = 3.94, 95% CI 0.83-18.7), and sTNFR2 (OR = 7.58, 95% CI 1.19-48.1). sgp130, sTNFR2, and sIL-2Rα are promising inflammatory markers of low cognitive performance for further investigation.

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IL-6 Transsignaling in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

IL-6 trans-signaling is critically involved in the initiation and promotion of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we investigated the clinical relevance of soluble members of IL-6 trans-signaling system in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU).

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