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#29033853   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

Proinflammatory Effect of High Glucose Concentrations on HMrSV5 Cells via the Autocrine Effect of HMGB1.

Background: Peritoneal fibrosis, in which inflammation and apoptosis play crucial pathogenic roles, is a severe complication associated with the treatment of kidney failure with peritoneal dialysis (PD) using a glucose-based dialysate. Mesothelial cells (MCs) take part in the inflammatory processes by producing various cytokines and chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). The apoptosis of MCs induced by high glucose levels also contributes to complications of PD. High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory factor that has repeatedly been proven to be related to the occurrence of peritoneal dysfunction. Aim: In this study, we aimed to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of endogenous HMGB1 in high-glucose-induced MC injury. Methods: The human peritoneal MC line, HMrSV5 was cultured in high-glucose medium and incubated with recombinant HMGB1. Cellular expression of HMGB1 was blocked using HMGB1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Apoptosis and production of inflammatory factors as well as the potential intermediary signaling pathways were examined. Results: The major findings of these analyses were: (1) MCs secreted HMGB1 from the nucleus during exposure to high glucose levels; HMGB1 acted in an autocrine fashion on the MCs to promote the production of MCP-1 and IL-8; (2) HMGB1 had little effect on high-glucose-induced apoptosis of the MCs; and (3) HMGB1-mediated MCP-1 and IL-8 production depended on the activation of MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, endogenous HMGB1 plays an important role in the inflammatory reaction induced by high glucose on MCs via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, but it seems to have little effect on high-glucose-induced apoptosis.

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#29031854   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

ANGPTL-4 induces diabetic retinal inflammation by activating Profilin-1.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common cause of irreversible blindness in working-age adults, results in central vision loss that is caused by microvascular damage to the inner lining of the back of the eye, the retina. The aim of this work was to assess the temporal relationships between angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL-4), a novel adipocytokine factor, and diabetic retinal inflammation and microvascular dysfunction. The downstream pathway(s) and upstream mediator(s) of ANGPTL-4 were then determined under high glucose (HG) conditions. Diabetic rats and control animals were randomly assigned to receive hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) blockade (doxorubicin or shRNA) or vehicle for 8 weeks. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) were incubated with normal or high glucose, with or without blockade or recombinant proteins, for ANGPTL-4, HIF-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The levels of ANGPTL-4, profilin-1, HIF-1α, VEGF, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and intercellular adherent molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the rat retinas and HRMEC extracts were examined by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. The levels of ANGPTL-4, profilin-1, HIF-1α, and VEGF protein and mRNA were significantly higher in the diabetic rats and HG-exposed HRMECs. ANGPTL-4 was a potent modulator of increased inflammation, permeability, and angiogenesis via activation of the profilin-1 signaling pathway. Our results showed that ANGPTL-4 upregulation was induced by HG, which was dependent on HIF-1α activation that was also triggered by HG, both in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that targeting ANGPTL-4, alone or in combination with profilin-1, may be an effective therapeutic strategy and diagnostic screening biomarker for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and other vitreous-retinal inflammatory diseases.

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#29029438   2017/10/14 Save this To Up

Lipocalin 2 regulates intestine bacterial survival by interplaying with siderophore in a weaned piglet model of Escherichia coli infection.

Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth, which plays a pivotal role in modulating the battle for survival between mammalian hosts and their pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria secrete siderophores to acquire iron from the host. However, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a siderophore-binding antimicrobial protein, binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial uptake of iron, which is critical for the control of systemic infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli). But few studies focus on the anti-infective response of Lcn2 in the intestines by inhibiting bacterial proliferation based on microbial iron metabolism. In this study, we showed that iron was sequestrated within cells in a piglet model of E. coli K88 infection. Siderophores was produced following E. coli K88 infection and siderophore-related genes expression was upregulated in iron-deficiency environment in vitro. Meanwhile, we found that Lcn2 expression was rapidly and robustly induced in jejunum by E. coli K88 infection and could be stimulated by IL-17 and IL-22. Furthermore, both Lcn2 induced in epithelial cells IPEC-1 and added exogenously as a recombinant protein could inhibit the growth of E. coli. We can conclude that Lcn2 is a crucial component of mucosal immune defense against intestinal infection with E. coli K88.

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#29029192   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Paracoccidioidomycosis associated with a heterozygous STAT4 mutation and impaired IFN-γ immunity.

Mutations in genes affecting interferon (IFN)-γ immunity have contributed to understand the essential role of IFN-γ in the protection against intracellular pathogens. However, inborn errors in STAT4, which controls IL-12 responses, have not yet been reported.

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#29026717   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Addition of interleukin-6 to mouse embryo culture increases blastocyst cell number and influences the inner cell mass to trophectoderm ratio.

In vitro culture of preimplantation embryos is improved by grouping embryos together in a drop of media. Individually cultured embryos are deprived of paracrine factors; with this in mind, we investigated whether the addition of a single embryo-secreted factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), could improve the development of individually cultured embryos.

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#29026328   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Phosphorylation of STAT proteins by recombinant human IL-6 in immortalized human chondrocyte cell lines, T/C28a2 and C28/I2.

Two immortalized human juvenile chondrocyte cell lines, T/C28a2 and C28/I2, were employed to determine the extent to which recombinant human (rh) IL-6, a known cytokine activator of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in many cell types, caused STAT proteins to be phosphorylated. The results showed that STAT3 was constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of rhIL-6 in T/C28a2 chondrocytes. However, C28/I2 chondrocytes treated with rhIL-6 caused STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 to be phosphorylated without altering total unphosphorylated STAT proteins. STAT3 phosphorylation in response to rhIL-6 in T/C28a and C28/I2 chondrocytes was efficiently blocked by the JAK3-selective inhibitor WHI-P131 (Janex-1) and by soluble IL-6 receptor-α (sIL-6R). However, the combination of rhIL-6 and ruxolitinib, a JAK1/JAK2-selective inhibitor, was a less effective inhibitor of STAT protein activation. These findings showed that rhIL-6 activated STAT proteins in the C28/I2 chondrocyte cell line. STAT protein phosphorylation could be blocked by a JAK3-selective inhibitor or by the combination of rhIL-6 and sIL-6R.

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#29022386   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

Bacillus toyonensis improves immune response in the mice vaccinated with recombinant antigen of bovine herpesvirus type 5.

Probiotics modulate the immune response and can increase the effectiveness of vaccines. Bacillus toyonensis is widely used as a probiotic in animal feed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of B. toyonensis administration on the immune response to an experimental recombinant vaccine against bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) in mice. Mice were vaccinated with BoHV-5 recombinant glycoprotein D and supplemented with the probiotic B. toyonensis in two regimes: one group received the probiotic only during seven days prior to the initial vaccination while the second group was given the probiotic throughout the experimental period of seven weeks. Animals supplemented with probiotic B. toyonensis in two regimes showed an increase in total immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgG1 and IgG2a levels in serum, in addition to higher titres of antibodies capable of neutralising the BoHV-5 virus than non-supplemented animals (P<0.05). Splenocytes from the supplemented mice had higher mRNA transcription levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12. These results show that the use of this probiotic may significantly contribute to the response elicited by recombinant vaccines, especially those that rely on increasing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses for efficacy. Further, the data support an immunomodulatory effect for probiotic B. toyonensis and imply that enhance effect on the immune response against a BoHV-5 recombinant vaccine in mice.

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#29022320   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

[Protein expression profile of mast cells in response to recombinant VP1-VP4 of foot-and-mouth disease virus].

To reveal the innate immunity of mast cells against recombinant VP1-VP4 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs) were pulsed with recombinant VP1-VP4 protein. The supernatants harvested from PMCs cultures were applied to the high throughput ELISA array. Our results show that the expression levels of CCL19, L-selectin, CCL17, and TNF alpha released from PMCs pulsed with recombinant VP1-VP4 were significantly down-regulated compared with PMCs alone (P<0.001). Surprisingly, in comparison with PMCs alone, the expression levels of CCL19, IL-15, IL-9, G-CSF, and Galectin-1 in PMCs with the mannose receptor (MR) inhibitor were significantly up-regulated (Plt;0.01), and the expression level of IL-10 was also remarkably up-regulated (Plt;0.05). Importantly, the protein expression levels in PMCs treated with MR inhibitor were higher than PMCs pulsed with VP1-VP4, including IL-10, IL-17, CCL20, IL-15, IL-9, L-selectin, CCL17, TNF alpha, and CCL19 (Plt;0.01) as well as CCL21, and G-CSF (Plt;0.05). Differential expression analysis in bioinformatics shows that both L-selectin and CCL17 were recognized as differentially expressed protein molecules (Log2(ratio)≤-1) when compared with PMCs alone. Furthermore, the up-regulation of the expression levels of CCL20, CCL19, L-selectin, and IL-15 in PMCs treated with MR inhibitor was defined as differential expression (Log2(ratio)≥1). These data indicate that PMCs are capable of secreting CCL19, L-selectin, CCL17, and TNF alpha spontaneously and the recombinant VP1-VP4 has an inhibitive potential to PMCs during their performance of innate immune response. Given the protein expression levels from PMCs pre-treated with MR inhibitor were significantly increased, it can be deduced that immunosuppression of FMDV is presumably initiated by the VP1 recognition of MR on mast cells.

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#29021612   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

IL-15 promotes human myogenesis and mitigates the detrimental effects of TNFα on myotube development.

Studies in murine cell lines and in mouse models suggest that IL-15 promotes myogenesis and may protect against the inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy which occurs in sarcopenia and cachexia. The effects of IL-15 on human skeletal muscle growth and development remain largely uncharacterised. Myogenic cultures were isolated from the skeletal muscle of young and elderly subjects. Myoblasts were differentiated for 8 d, with or without the addition of recombinant cytokines (rIL-15, rTNFα) and an IL-15 receptor neutralising antibody. Although myotubes were 19% thinner in cultures derived from elderly subjects, rIL-15 increased the thickness of myotubes (MTT) from both age groups to a similar extent. Neutralisation of the high-affinity IL-15 receptor binding subunit, IL-15rα in elderly myotubes confirmed that autocrine concentrations of IL-15 also support myogenesis. Co-incubation of differentiating myoblasts with rIL-15 and rTNFα, limited the reduction in MTT and nuclear fusion index (NFI) associated with rTNFα stimulation alone. IL-15rα neutralisation and rTNFα decreased MTT and NFI further. This, coupled with our observation that myotubes secrete IL-15 in response to TNFα stimulation supports the notion that IL-15 serves to mitigate inflammatory skeletal muscle loss. IL-15 may be an effective therapeutic target for the attenuation of inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy.

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#29021166   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

An analysis of IL-36 signature genes and individuals with IL1RL2 knockout mutations validates IL-36 as a psoriasis therapeutic target.

Interleukin (IL)-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ are innate mediators of acute epithelial inflammation. We sought to demonstrate that these cytokines are also required for the pathogenesis of plaque psoriasis, a common and chronic skin disorder, caused by abnormal T helper 17 (TH17) cell activation. To investigate this possibility, we first defined the genes that are induced by IL-36 cytokines in primary human keratinocytes. This enabled us to demonstrate a significant IL-36 signature among the transcripts that are up-regulated in plaque psoriasis and the susceptibility loci associated with the disease in genome-wide studies. Next, we investigated the impact of in vivo and ex vivo IL-36 receptor blockade using a neutralizing antibody or a recombinant antagonist. Both inhibitors had marked anti-inflammatory effects on psoriatic skin, demonstrated by statistically significant reductions in IL-17 expression, keratinocyte activation, and leukocyte infiltration. Finally, we explored the potential safety profile associated with IL-36 blockade by phenotyping 12 individuals carrying knockout mutations of the IL-36 receptor gene. We found that normal immune function was broadly preserved in these individuals, suggesting that IL-36 signaling inhibition would not substantially compromise host defenses. These observations, which integrate the results of transcriptomics and model system analysis, pave the way for early-stage clinical trials of IL-36 antagonists.

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