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           Search results for: INCB-018424 (Ruxolitinib) Mechanisms: JAK1 2 inhibitor   

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#28566376   2017/06/01 Save this To Up

Ruxolitinib and Polycation Combination Treatment Overcomes Multiple Mechanisms of Resistance of Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus.

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a promising oncolytic virus (OV). Although VSV is effective against a majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell (PDAC) cell lines, some PDAC cell lines are highly resistant to VSV, and the mechanisms of resistance are still unclear. JAK1/2 inhibitors (such as ruxolitinib and JAK inhibitor I) strongly stimulate VSV replication and oncolysis in all resistant cell lines but only partially improve the susceptibility of resistant PDACs to VSV. VSV tumor tropism is generally dependent on the permissiveness of malignant cells to viral replication rather than on receptor specificity, with several ubiquitously expressed cell surface molecules playing a role in VSV attachment to host cells. However, as VSV attachment to PDAC cells has never been tested before, here we examined if it was possibly inhibited in resistant PDAC cells. Our data show a dramatically weaker attachment of VSV to HPAF-II cells, the most resistant human PDAC cell line. Although sequence analysis of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) mRNA did not reveal any amino acid substitutions in this cell line, HPAF-II cells displayed the lowest level of LDLR expression and dramatically lower LDL uptake. Treatment of cells with various statins strongly increased LDLR expression levels but did not improve VSV attachment or LDL uptake in HPAF-II cells. However, LDLR-independent attachment of VSV to HPAF-II cells was dramatically improved by treating cells with Polybrene or DEAE-dextran. Moreover, combining VSV with ruxolitinib and Polybrene or DEAE-dextran successfully broke the resistance of HPAF-II cells to VSV by simultaneously improving VSV attachment and replication.IMPORTANCE Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an anticancer approach that uses viruses that selectively infect and kill cancer cells. This study focuses on oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Although VSV is effective against most PDAC cells, some are highly resistant to VSV, and the mechanisms are still unclear. Here we examined if VSV attachment to cells was inhibited in resistant PDAC cells. Our data show very inefficient attachment of VSV to the most resistant human PDAC cell line, HPAF-II. However, VSV attachment to HPAF-II cells was dramatically improved by treating cells with polycations. Moreover, combining VSV with polycations and ruxolitinib (which inhibits antiviral signaling) successfully broke the resistance of HPAF-II cells to VSV by simultaneously improving VSV attachment and replication. We envision that this novel triple-combination approach could be used in the future to treat PDAC tumors that are highly resistant to OV therapy.

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#27983880   2016/12/16 Save this To Up

How ruxolitinib modified the outcome in myelofibrosis: focus on overall survival, allele burden reduction and fibrosis changes.

Ruxolitinib is a potent and selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor that has shown superiority as compared to available conventional chemotherapies, in terms of reduction in splenomegaly and improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Areas covered: Data published about overall survival in the major randomized sponsored trials and in independent series of patients were detailed. Indeed, data regarding action of ruxolitinib on allele burden reduction and potential activity of the drug on pathogenetic mechanisms involved in increased fibrosis has been reviewed. Expert commentary: Data extrapolated from clinical trials demonstrated an advantage of survival when the drug was compared to placebo or to best available therapy. Moreover, in the long-term, JAK2 allele burden was reduced during treatment and about 50% of patients achieved improvement or stabilization of fibrosis. For this latter activity, several pathways have been involved. In conclusion, ruxolitinib is able to modify the natural outcome of patients affected by myelofibrosis, independently from its nature, both in primary and secondary diseases.

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#26623653   2015/12/02 Save this To Up

The Bone Marrow-Mediated Protection of Myeloproliferative Neoplastic Cells to Vorinostat and Ruxolitinib Relies on the Activation of JNK and PI3K Signalling Pathways.

The classical BCR-ABL-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) are a group of heterogeneous haematological diseases characterized by constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation. Targeted therapy with Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2-specific inhibitor, achieves symptomatic improvement but does not eliminate the neoplastic clone. Similar effects are seen with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), albeit with poorer tolerance. Here, we show that bone marrow (BM) stromal cells (HS-5) protected MPN-derived cell lines (SET-2; HEL and UKE-1) and MPN patient-derived BM cells from the cytotoxic effects of Ruxolitinib and the HDACi Vorinostat. This protective effect was mediated, at least in part, by the secretion of soluble factors from the BM stroma. In addition, it correlated with the activation of signalling pathways important for cellular homeostasis, such as JAK-STAT, PI3K, JNK, MEK-ERK and NF-κB. Importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of JNK and PI3K pathways completely abrogated the BM protective effect on MPN cell lines and MPN patient samples. Our findings shed light on mechanisms of tumour survival and may indicate novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MPN.

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#26356267   2015/09/11 Save this To Up

Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Ruxolitinib.

The JAK1/JAK2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib is widely used for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis and other malignancies. Most important side effects include anemia. A common cause of anemia is accelerated suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Mechanisms contributing to the triggering of eryptosis include oxidative stress, Ca2+ entry with increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), and activation of distinct kinases, such as p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. The present study explored whether and how ruxolitinib induces eryptosis.

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#23406773   2013/04/17 Save this To Up

Molecular pathways: Jak/STAT pathway: mutations, inhibitors, and resistance.

Aberrant activation of the JAK/STAT pathway has been reported in a variety of disease states, including inflammatory conditions, hematologic malignancies, and solid tumors. For instance, a large proportion of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) carry the acquired gain-of-function JAK2 V617F somatic mutation. This knowledge has dramatically improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of MPNs and has facilitated the development of therapeutics capable of suppressing the constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT pathway, now recognized as a common underlying biologic abnormality in MPNs. Ruxolitinib is an oral JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor that has recently been approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis and has been tested against other hematologic malignancies. A series of agents with different specificities against different members of the JAK family of proteins is currently undergoing evaluation in clinical trials for patients with MPNs, lymphoma, and solid tumors such as breast or pancreatic cancer. Despite the significant clinical activity exhibited by these agents in myelofibrosis, some patients fail to respond or progress during JAK kinase inhibitor therapy. Recent reports have shed light into the mechanisms of resistance to JAK inhibitor therapy. Several approaches hold promise to overcome such resistance.

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#22474318   2012/06/04 Save this To Up

Ruxolitinib: the first FDA approved therapy for the treatment of myelofibrosis.

The BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (e.g., essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and primary myelofibrosis) are a group of heterogeneous hematologic malignancies that involve a clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. Thrombosis, bleeding, and transformation to acute leukemia reduce the overall survival of patients with myelofibrosis, a disease typified by progressive splenomegaly and disease-related symptoms such as fatigue, pruritus, and bony pains. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant offers the only potential for cure in a minority of eligible patients, leaving a serious unmet need for improved therapies. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these diseases have led to an explosion of clinical trials evaluating novel therapies. The discovery of an activating mutation in the Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) gene provided a therapeutic target to downregulate this activated signaling pathway, which influences the phenotype of these diseases. Ruxolitinib (Jakafi; Incyte) is a small-molecule inhibitor of JAK1/2 that has proved to be effective at reducing splenomegaly and ameliorating symptoms in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Based on the results of 2 pivotal randomized phase III clinical trials, ruxolitinib has become the first therapeutic to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of patients with myelofibrosis. Ruxolitinib offers a well-tolerated oral therapeutic option for patients with myelofibrosis with symptomatic splenomegaly and debilitating disease-related symptoms, but it does not seem to be effective at eliminating the underlying hematological malignancy.

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#20130243   2010/04/16 Save this To Up

Preclinical characterization of the selective JAK1/2 inhibitor INCB018424: therapeutic implications for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Constitutive JAK2 activation in hematopoietic cells by the JAK2V617F mutation recapitulates myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) phenotypes in mice, establishing JAK2 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy. Although most polycythemia vera patients carry the JAK2V617F mutation, half of those with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis do not, suggesting alternative mechanisms for constitutive JAK-STAT signaling in MPNs. Most patients with primary myelofibrosis have elevated levels of JAK-dependent proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin-6) consistent with our observation of JAK1 hyperactivation. Accordingly, we evaluated the effectiveness of selective JAK1/2 inhibition in experimental models relevant to MPNs and report on the effects of INCB018424, the first potent, selective, oral JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor to enter the clinic. INCB018424 inhibited interleukin-6 signaling (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 281nM), and proliferation of JAK2V617F(+) Ba/F3 cells (IC(50) = 127nM). In primary cultures, INCB018424 preferentially suppressed erythroid progenitor colony formation from JAK2V617F(+) polycythemia vera patients (IC(50) = 67nM) versus healthy donors (IC(50) > 400nM). In a mouse model of JAK2V617F(+) MPN, oral INCB018424 markedly reduced splenomegaly and circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, and preferentially eliminated neoplastic cells, resulting in significantly prolonged survival without myelosuppressive or immunosuppressive effects. Preliminary clinical results support these preclinical data and establish INCB018424 as a promising oral agent for the treatment of MPNs.

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