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#14695670   2003/12/25 Save this To Up

Influence of antigenic drift on the intensity of influenza outbreaks: upper respiratory tract infections of military conscripts in Finland.

A total of 102,600 upper respiratory infections (URI) were recorded among young military conscripts in the Finnish Defence Forces during the study period from October 1991 to March 1994. This period covered three outbreaks caused by H3N2-subtype influenza A virus and one outbreak of influenza B. During the 1991/92 outbreak caused by A/Beijing/353/89-like virus, the calculated influenza A incidence was 2,206/10,000 men. During the 1992/93 outbreak when influenza B was the predominant virus, a new drift variant of influenza A that belonged to the lineage of A/Beijing/32/92-like and A/Shangdong/9/93-like viruses circulated but the incidence of influenza A was not more than 1,044/10,000. A higher incidence, 2,810/10,000, was recorded during the 1993/94 outbreak, when the circulating virus was similar to the 1992/93 virus antigenically and with regard to haemagglutinin and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences. Crossreactive haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies induced in 1991/92 probably were sufficient to restrict the epidemic activity in 1992/93 but no longer in 1993/94. Furthermore, during the 1991/92 outbreak, some of the A/Beijing/353/89-like viruses already had shared the NA sequence markers characteristic of the viruses in 1992/93 and 1993/94, which may also have strengthened protection in 1992/93.

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Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Influenza A H3N2 Viral Ly Mouse Anti-Influenza A Nu Mouse Anti-Influenza A He Rabbit Anti-Influenza A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza A N Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA

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#10195637   1999/06/02 Save this To Up

A novel influenza subunit vaccine composed of liposome-encapsulated haemagglutinin/neuraminidase and IL-2 or GM-CSF. II. Induction of TH1 and TH2 responses in mice.

This study was aimed at analyzing, in parallel, the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited in mice immunized with liposomal influenza A (Shangdong/9/93) subunit vaccines composed of haemagglutinin/neuraminidase (H3N2) and IL-2 or GM-CSF. Recently, we reported that such vaccines evoke a more rapid, stronger and longer-lasting (over 1 year) humoral response, as well as protective immunity against viral infection, following a single administration, as compared with the response induced by the free antigen given alone or together with soluble cytokines. In the present study, BALB/C mice were immunized once, i.p., s.c., i.m. or i.n., with nonliposomal or liposomal vaccines and the humoral (antibody titer and isotypes) and cellular (DTH, cytotoxicity, cytokine production) responses were assessed at various times (2-56 weeks). The main findings were: (a) the combined liposomal vaccines consisting of encapsulated antigen and encapsulated cytokine, but not the free antigen, elicited a high titer of serum IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3 and IgM antibodies; (b) the combined liposomal vaccines were efficient following administration by the various routes, and induced a local (in lung) IgA response in i.n. vaccinated mice; (c) the liposomal vaccines triggered DTH and cytotoxic responses, as well as cytokine (mainly IL-4) production. Together, these and other findings indicate that our cytokine-supported liposomal influenza vaccines efficiently stimulate both Th1 and Th2 responses and that such vaccines may be more potent in high-risk groups than the currently used subunit vaccines.

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Avian Influenza virus H5N Avian Influenza Virus H5N Human Interleukin-32 alph Human Interleukin-1-alpha EMAP-II Inhibitor Z-ASTD- EMAP-II Inhibitor Z-ASTD- EMAP II Inhibitor Z ASTD EMAP II Inhibitor Z ASTD Rabbit Anti-Inf A Neurami Rabbit Anti-Influenza A N Mouse Anti-Human Interleu Rabbit Anti-Human Androge

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#10195636   1999/06/02 Save this To Up

A novel influenza subunit vaccine composed of liposome-encapsulated haemagglutinin/neuraminidase and IL-2 or GM-CSF. I. Vaccine characterization and efficacy studies in mice.

The aim of this study was to improve the potency of the currently used influenza subunit vaccines, which are of relatively low efficiency in high-risk groups. Influenza A virus (Shangdong/9/93) haemagglutinin/neuraminidase (H3N2), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were encapsulated, each separately or combined, in multilamellar vesicles composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine. BALB/c mice were immunized once, i.p. or s.c., with 0.05-2.0 microg HN administered either as free antigen (F-HN), adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (Al-HN), or encapsulated in liposomes (Lip-HN), separately or together with 1 x 10(2)-4.5 x 10(4) units of free or encapsulated cytokines. Serum antibodies were assayed on days 11-360 by the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test and ELISA. Protective immunity against intranasal virus challenge was determined at 9-14 months post-vaccination. The following results were obtained: (1) The efficiency of encapsulation in liposomes was 95, 90 and 38% for HN, IL-2 and GM-CSF, respectively, and the liposomal preparations were highly stable as an aqueous dispersion for > 2 months at 4 degrees C. (2) Following immunization with 0.5 microg Lip-HN, there was an earlier, up to 50-fold stronger, and 3-5 times longer response than that obtained with nonliposomal HN. (3) Coimmunization with free cytokines further increased the response 2-20 times and the two cytokines had an additive effect. (4) Liposomal cytokines were 2-20 times more effective than the free cytokines and their stimulatory effect was more durable. (5) A 100% seroconversion (HI titer > or = 40) was achieved with only 10-25% of the routinely used antigen dose, by encapsulating either antigen or cytokine. (6) The level of protection following vaccination with the combined liposomal vaccines was 70-100% versus 0-25% in mice immunized with Al-HN alone, and no toxicity was observed. In conclusion, our animal experiments show that the liposomal vaccines are superior to the currently used influenza vaccines, increasing the response by 2-3 orders of magnitude in mice. This approach may also prove valuable for subunit vaccines against other microorganisms.

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#8705685   1996/09/06 Save this To Up

Time to peak serum antibody response to influenza vaccine in the elderly.

The earliest time at which serum antibody peaks following administration of influenza virus vaccine in elderly persons is not clearly defined. We compared the time intervals of 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination. A commercial trivalent vaccine containing the hemagglutinins of influenza viruses A/Texas/36/91(H1N1), A/Shangdong/9/93(H3N2), and B/Panama/45/90 was used. The hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers at 2 weeks after vaccination were identical to the hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers at 4 weeks for all three vaccine components.

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#9395631   1997/12/19 Save this To Up

Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama.

A standardized elderberry extract, Sambucol (SAM), reduced hemagglutination and inhibited replication of human influenza viruses type A/Shangdong 9/93 (H3N2), A/Beijing 32/92 (H3N2), A/Texas 36/91 (H1N1), A/Singapore 6/86 (H1N1), type B/Panama 45/90, B/Yamagata 16/88, B/Ann Arbor 1/86, and of animal strains from Northern European swine and turkeys, A/Sw/Ger 2/81, A/Tur/Ger 3/91, and A/Sw/Ger 8533/91 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. A placebo-controlled, double blind study was carried out on a group of individuals living in an agricultural community (kibbutz) during an outbreak of influenza B/Panama in 1993. Fever, feeling of improvement, and complete cure were recorded during 6 days. Sera obtained in the acute and convalescent phases were tested for the presence of antibodies to influenza A, B, respiratory syncytial, and adenoviruses. Convalescent phase serologies showed higher mean and mean geometric hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers to influenza B in the group treated with SAM than in the control group. A significant improvement of the symptoms, including fever, was seen in 93.3% of the cases in the SAM-treated group within 2 days, whereas in the control group 91.7% of the patients showed an improvement within 6 days (p < 0.001). A complete cure was achieved within 2 to 3 days in nearly 90% of the SAM-treated group and within at least 6 days in the placebo group (p < 0.001). No satisfactory medication to cure influenza type A and B is available. Considering the efficacy of the extract in vitro on all strains of influenza virus tested, the clinical results, its low cost, and absence of side-effects, this preparation could offer a possibility for safe treatment for influenza A and B.

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#7812234   1995/02/09 Save this To Up

1993-1994 influenza season: Canadian laboratory diagnoses, strain characterization and post-season serosurvey (Ontario).

In Canada as a whole, influenza A/Beijing/32/92-like virus was the dominant infecting strain in the 1993-1994 season with reported laboratory diagnoses peaking in January 1994. Vaccination is again urged for all persons in high-risk groups. Antibody induced by vaccination does not persist well from season to season and the emerging A/Shangdong/9/93 (H3N2)-like variant is related to A/Beijing/32/92(H3N2) but is inhibited less by antibodies to that strain. Conditions are also consistent with possible increased influenza B activity this season.

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#7935948   1994/11/10 Save this To Up

[Influenza in the 1993/'94 season; composition of the vaccine for the 1994/'95 season].

The influenza season 1993/'94 in the Netherlands and the rest of Northwestern Europe was marked by an influenza A/H3N2 epidemic. The morbidity of this epidemic was moderate, but a high mortality rate was observed. The epidemic viruses, represented by A/Netherlands/241/93 (H3N2), were characterised by haemagglutination inhibition assays and nucleotide sequence analysis. The viruses were related to A/Beijing/32/92 (H3N2), the vaccine strain for 1993/'94, but clear antigenic differences were detected. Therefore, the WHO has recommended a new A/H3N2 component, A/Shangdong/9/93, for the vaccine of 1994/'95. The onset of the epidemic was unusually early in the influenza season. An increase in the influenza activity was already noticed in the second week of November and it reached its peak in week 49. As a result of the early epidemic, the influenza vaccination programme had not been completed yet. Therefore, the point of time for vaccinating people at risk may have to be reconsidered and moved up in order to complete the vaccination programme earlier.

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