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#26215730   2015/07/28 Save this To Up

Bevacizumab promotes venous thromboembolism through the induction of PAI-1 in a mouse xenograft model of human lung carcinoma.

An increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF-A, on VTE in a murine xenograft A549 cell tumor model.

1046 related Products with: Bevacizumab promotes venous thromboembolism through the induction of PAI-1 in a mouse xenograft model of human lung carcinoma.

Inhibitory mouse monoclo Goat Anti-Human, Mouse HI Goat Anti-Human FTO (Mous Goat Anti-Human, Mouse EB Goat Anti-Human, Mouse, R Goat Anti-Human, Mouse, R Goat Anti-Human, Mouse AR Goat Anti-Human Apolipopr Mouse Anti-Human Interleu Mouse Anti-Human Interleu Mouse Anti-Human Interleu Mouse Anti-Human Interleu

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#22178065   2012/03/19 Save this To Up

Maximal PAI-1 inhibition in vivo requires neutralizing antibodies that recognize and inhibit glycosylated PAI-1.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates the activity of t-PA and u-PA and is an important inhibitor of the plasminogen activator system. Elevated PAI-1 levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Prior to the evaluation of PAI-1 inhibitors in humans, there is a strong need to study the effect of PAI-1 inhibition in mouse models. In the current study, four monoclonal antibodies previously reported to inhibit recombinant PAI-1 in vitro, were evaluated in an LPS-induced endotoxemia model in mice. Both MA-33H1F7 and MA-MP2D2 exerted a strong PAI-1 inhibitory effect, whereas for MA-H4B3 and MA-124K1 no reduced PAI-1 activity was observed in vivo. Importantly, the lack of PAI-1 inhibition observed for MA-124K1 and MA-H4B3 in vivo corresponded with the absence of inhibition toward glycosylated mouse PAI-1 in vitro. Three potential N-glycosylation sites were predicted for mouse PAI-1 (i.e. N209, N265 and N329). Electrophoretic mobility analysis of glycosylation knock-out mutants before and after deglycosylation indicates the presence of glycan chains at position N265. These data demonstrate that an inhibitory effect toward glycosylated PAI-1 is a prerequisite for efficient PAI-1 inhibition in mice. Our data also suggest that PAI-1 inhibitors for use in humans must preferably be screened on glycosylated PAI-1 and not on recombinant non-glycosylated PAI-1.

2484 related Products with: Maximal PAI-1 inhibition in vivo requires neutralizing antibodies that recognize and inhibit glycosylated PAI-1.

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#21392818   2011/06/06 Save this To Up

Characterization of a panel of monoclonal antibodies toward mouse PAI-1 that exert a significant profibrinolytic effect in vivo.

PAI-1 is the main physiological inhibitor of t-PA and u-PA. Elevated PAI-1 levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several thrombotic and non-thrombotic diseases. The effect of PAI-1 inhibition can be studied in mouse models, when appropriate immunological tools are available. The majority of the available monoclonal antibodies against PAI-1 have been raised against human PAI-1. Even though some of these antibodies cross-react with non-glycosylated PAI-1 from different species, these antibodies often do not cross-react sufficiently with glycosylated mouse PAI-1. Moreover, the antibodies that cross-react with glycosylated mouse PAI-1 often have decreased inhibitory properties in the presence of vitronectin. Our objective was the generation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies reacting with vitronectin-bound glycosylated mouse PAI-1.

2703 related Products with: Characterization of a panel of monoclonal antibodies toward mouse PAI-1 that exert a significant profibrinolytic effect in vivo.

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#18559377   2008/08/22 Save this To Up

A peptide accelerating the conversion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 to an inactive latent state.

The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a specific inhibitor of plasminogen activators and a potential therapeutic target in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, formation of a basis for development of specific PAI-1-inactivating agents is of great interest. One possible inactivation mode for PAI-1 is conversion to the inactive, so-called latent state. We have now screened a phage-displayed peptide library with PAI-1 as bait and isolated a 31-residue cysteine-rich peptide that will be referred to as paionin-4. A recombinant protein consisting of paionin-4 fused to domains 1 and 2 of the phage coat protein g3p caused a 2- to 3-fold increase in the rate of spontaneous inactivation of PAI-1. Paionin-4-D1D2 bound PAI-1 with a K(D) in the high nanomolar range. Using several biochemical and biophysical methods, we demonstrate that paionin-4-D1D2-stimulated inactivation consists of an acceleration of conversion to the latent state. As demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis and competition with other PAI-1 ligands, the binding site for paionin-4 was localized in the loop between alpha-helix D and beta-strand 2A. We also demonstrate that a latency-inducing monoclonal antibody has an overlapping, but not identical binding site, and accelerates latency transition by another mechanism. Our results show that paionin-4 inactivates PAI-1 by a mechanism clearly different from other peptides, small organochemical compounds, or antibodies, whether they cause inactivation by stimulating latency transition or by other mechanisms, and that the loop between alpha-helix D and beta-strand 2A can be a target for PAI-1 inactivation by different types of compounds.

1094 related Products with: A peptide accelerating the conversion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 to an inactive latent state.

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#12223472   2002/11/11 Save this To Up

Mechanisms of conversion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 from a suicide inhibitor to a substrate by monoclonal antibodies.

We have delineated two different reaction mechanisms of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), MA-8H9D4 and either MA-55F4C12 or MA-33H1F7, that convert plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) to a substrate for tissue (tPA)- and urokinase plasminogen activators. MA-8H9D4 almost completely (98-99%) shifts the reaction to the substrate pathway by preventing disordering of the proteinase active site. MA-8H9D4 does not affect the rate-limiting constants (k(lim)) for the insertion of the reactive center loop cleaved by tPA (3.5 s(-1)) but decreases k(lim) for urokinase plasminogen activator from 25 to 4.0 s(-1). MA-8H9D4 does not cause deacylation of preformed PAI-1/proteinase complexes and probably acts prior to the formation of the final inhibitory complex, interfering with displacement of the acylated serine from the proteinase active site. MA-55F4C12 and MA-33H1F7 (50-80% substrate reaction) do not interfere with initial PAI-1/proteinase complex formation but retard the inhibitory pathway by decreasing k(lim) (>10-fold for tPA). Interaction of two mAbs with the same molecule of PAI-1 has been directly demonstrated for pairs MA-8H9D4/MA-55F4C12 and MA-8H9D4/MA-33H1F7 but not for MA-55F4C12/MA-33H1F7. The strong functional additivity observed for MA-8H9D4 and MA-55F4C12 demonstrates that these mAbs interact independently and affect different steps of the PAI-1 reaction mechanism.

1957 related Products with: Mechanisms of conversion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 from a suicide inhibitor to a substrate by monoclonal antibodies.

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#11559698   2001/11/23 Save this To Up

The distal hinge of the reactive site loop and its proximity: a target to modulate plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity.

The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays a regulatory role in various physiological processes (e.g. fibrinolysis and pericellular proteolysis) and forms a potential target for therapeutic interventions. In this study we identified the epitopes of three PAI-1 inhibitory monoclonal antibodies (MA-44E4, MA-42A2F6, and MA-56A7C10). Differential cross-reactivities of these monoclonals with PAI-1 from different species and sequence alignments between these PAI-1s, combined with the three-dimensional structure, revealed several charged residues as possible candidates to contribute to the respective epitopes. The production, characterization, and subsequent evaluation of a variety of alanine mutants using surface plasmon resonance revealed that the residues His(185), Arg(186), and Arg(187) formed the major sites of interaction for MA-44E4. In contrast, the epitopes of MA-42A2F6 and MA-56A7C10 were found to be conformational. The epitope of MA-42A2F6 comprises residues Lys(243) and Glu(350), whereas the epitope of MA-56A7C10 comprises residues Glu(242), Lys(243), Glu(244), Glu(350), Asp(355), and Arg(356). The participation of Glu(350), Asp(355), and Arg(356) provides a molecular explanation for the differential exposure of this epitope in the different conformations of PAI-1 and for the effect of these antibodies on the kinetics of the formation of the initial PAI-1-proteinase complexes. The localization of the epitopes of MA-44E4, MA42A2F6, and MA-56A7C10 elucidates two previously unidentified molecular mechanisms to modulate PAI-1 activity and opens new perspectives for the rational development of PAI-1 neutralizing compounds.

1976 related Products with: The distal hinge of the reactive site loop and its proximity: a target to modulate plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity.

TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Normal mouse multiple org Human tissue plasminogen Human tissue plasminogen

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#9477948   1998/03/05 Save this To Up

Identification of the binding site for a low-molecular-weight inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 by site-directed mutagenesis.

A novel low-molecular-weight inhibitor, AR-H029953XX, was developed from a known fibrinolytic compound, flufenamic acid, which prevented complex formation of human plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by inhibition of PAI-1. To explore the binding site for AR-H029953XX, mutants of human PAI-1 were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and were then expressed in CHO cells, purified, activated, and characterized. (1) PAI-1 with mutations in the reactive center loop: L1-PAI-1 (P10, Ser337Glu) had stability and activity similar to those of wild-type PAI-1 (wt-PAI-1), and L2-PAI-1 (P12, Ala335Glu) was highly stable but was a substrate for tPA. (2) PAI-1 with mutations near the binding epitope for the strongly inhibiting monoclonal antibody CLB-2C8: C1-PAI-1 (Phe114Glu), C2-PAI-1 (Val121Phe), C3-PAI-1 (Arg76Glu/Arg115Glu/Arg118Glu), and C4-PAI-1 (Arg115Glu) were all comparable in activity and stability to wt-PAI-1. AR-H029953XX (Ki = 25 microM) prevented complex formation between tPA and active wt-PAI-1 as well as that with mutants L1-, L2-, C1-, C2-, and C4-PAI-1. AR-H029953XX also inhibited binding of these PAI-1 variants to the antibody CLB-2C8, as measured by surface plasmon resonance. In contrast, AR-H029953XX had almost no inhibitory effect on the complex formation of tPA with C3-PAI-1. Moreover, AR-H029953XX had no effect on the binding rate of CLB-2C8 to C3-PAI-1, or on the binding to latent PAI-1 or to cleaved L2-PAI-1. The binding site of AR-H029953XX thus appears to be located in the neighborhood of the postulated epitope for CLB-2C8, near residues Arg76 and/or Arg118. This specific domain of the PAI-1 molecule might thus also be important for the mechanism of inhibitory activity toward tPA. Moreover, the structure of this region in active PAI-1 has to be different from the corresponding regions in latent and cleaved PAI-1.

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#9048903   1997/04/01 Save this To Up

Neutralization of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibitory properties: identification of two different mechanisms.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a unique member of the serpin superfamily, plays an important role in fibrinolysis and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 can occur in three interconvertible conformations: an active, a latent and a substrate form. To study conformational and functional relationships in PAI-1, a wide variety of monoclonal antibodies were evaluated for their influence on PAI-1 activity. Out of 77 monoclonal antibodies, directed against human PAI-1, six were selected for their strong inhibitory effect towards PAI-1 activity, i.e., 80 to 100% inhibition in the presence of a 1- to 16-fold molar excess of monoclonal antibody. Detailed analysis of the reaction products formed during the interaction between PAI-1 and its target proteinases tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) or urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), in the presence of these monoclonal antibodies, revealed two distinct mechanisms of PAI-1 inactivation. Incubation of PAI-1 with one series of monoclonal antibodies resulted in the absence of any reaction indicative for direct interaction with the reactive-site loop or a facilitated conversion to the latent conformation. The loss of PAI-1 activity in the presence of the other group of monoclonal antibodies was associated with the concomitant formation of a 41 kDa cleavage product after interaction with the target proteinase. The latter observation demonstrates that binding of these antibodies induced a conformational change thereby converting the inhibitory, active conformation to the non-inhibitory substrate conformation. No conformational changes could be observed in latent PAI-1 under these conditions. Analysis of cross-reactivity revealed that some of these functionally important epitopes were conserved throughout PAI-1 obtained from various species including rabbit mouse and/or pig, resulting in similar functional and conformational effects induced by these antibodies. Thus, we have demonstrated the occurrence of two distinct mechanisms by which the inhibitory activity of PAI-1 can be neutralized. This may have implications for the design of therapeutic or preventive strategies to interfere with PAI-1 activity. Cross-reactivity of these inhibitory antibodies with PAI-1 from various species may also allow their application in experimental animal models studying the in vivo role of PAI-1 in various diseases (e.g. atherosclerosis, thrombosis, angiogenesis,...).

1686 related Products with: Neutralization of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibitory properties: identification of two different mechanisms.

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#8922882   1997/02/26 Save this To Up

Leukaemia inhibitory factor and oncostatin M modulate expression of urokinase plasminogen activator and fibrinogen.

Pathogenetic effects of active immune cell products on the coagulation and fibrinolytic system proteins in liver and endothelial cells--primary sites of synthesis of these proteins--have not been elucidated.

2767 related Products with: Leukaemia inhibitory factor and oncostatin M modulate expression of urokinase plasminogen activator and fibrinogen.

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#8604004   1996/05/15 Save this To Up

Endogenously produced urokinase amplifies tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by THP-1 mononuclear phagocytes.

This study examined the effects of endogenous urokinase (uPA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion in THP-1 mononuclear phagocytes. Anti-uPA monoclonal antibody (mAb) suppressed LPS-driven TNF-alpha secretion by 61.6 +/- 5.9% (P<.001), and PAI-1, a uPA inhibitor, suppressed it to 53.1 +/- 8.2% of the control value (P<.001). Up-regulation of TNF-alpha mRNA was suppressed in parallel with secreted TNF-alpha protein. TNF-alpha secretion was unaffected by depleting plasminogen or by aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor. When endogenous uPA was displaced from the cell, exogenous high-molecular-weight (intact) uPA augmented LPS-driven TNF-alpha secretion. By contrast, a uPA fragment containing the catalytic domain was inhibitory, and the uPA receptor-binding domain had no effect. We conclude that endogenous uPA amplifies TNF-alpha neosynthesis of LPS-stimulated THP-1 mononuclear phagocytes. The effect requires intact uPA and is independent of plasmin activity. This represents a novel mechanism by which a mononuclear phagocyte-derived protease contributes to generating proinflammatory signals.

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