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#26193702   2015/07/21 Save this To Up

Type III Interferon Induces Distinct SOCS1 Expression Pattern that Contributes to Delayed but Prolonged Activation of Jak/STAT Signaling Pathway: Implications for Treatment Non-Response in HCV Patients.

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) has long been thought to block type I interferon signaling. However, IFN-λ, a type III IFN with limited receptor expression in hepatic cells, efficiently inhibits HCV (Hepatitis C virus) replication in vivo with potentially less side effects than IFN-α. Previous studies demonstrated that type I and type III activated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) signaling pathway differently, with delayed but prolonged activation by IFN-λ stimulation compared to IFNα/β. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation is not well understood. Here, we found that there are distinct differences in SOCS1 expression patterns in Huh-7.5.1 cells following stimulation with IFN-α and IFN-λ. IFN-λ induced a faster but shorter expression of SOCS1. Furthermore, we confirmed that SOCS1 over-expression abrogates anti-HCV effect of both IFN-α and IFN-λ, leading to increased HCV RNA replication in both HCV replicon cells and JFH1 HCV culture system. In line with this, SOCS1 over-expression inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation, attenuated IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) reporter activity, and blocked IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression. Finally, we measured SOCS1 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with or without IFN-α treatment from 48 chronic hepatitis C patients and we found the baseline SOCS1 expression levels are higher in treatment non-responders than in responders before IFN-α treatment. Taken together, SOCS1 acts as a suppressor for both type I and type III IFNs and is negatively associated with sustained virological response (SVR) to IFN-based therapy in patients with HCV. More importantly, faster but shorter induction of SOCS1 by IFN-λ may contribute to delayed but prolonged activation of IFN signaling and ISG expression kinetics by type III IFN.

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#24308966   2014/01/22 Save this To Up

High glucose driven expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes in lymphocytes: molecular mechanisms of IL-17 family gene expression.

High glucose is an independent risk factor that alters the expression pattern of cytokines/chemokine leading to leukocyte activation in diabetes. Fluctuation of cytokine milieu in lymphocytes may lead to differentiation into a particular subset. Our objectives were to profile high glucose induced inflammatory gene expression in lymphocytes, to examine in vivo relevance in diabetes and to identify the key transcription factors and signaling pathways involved. Cytokine gene arrays and T-helper (Th1/Th2/Th17) cytokine profiler RT(2)-PCR arrays used for cytokine expression profiling followed by validation using Real Time-qPCR and relative RT-PCR in Jurkat T-lymphocytes, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs) from normal and diabetes subjects. Luciferase reporter plasmid, pharmacological inhibitors and mutant plasmids were used for promoter activation and signaling pathway studies. High glucose induced gene profiling in Jurkat T-lymphocytes showed significantly increased expression of 64 proinflammatory genes including IL-6 and IL-17A and most of these genes were Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB and AP-1 regulated. RT(2)-PCR array results suggested the transcriptional activation of IL-17 and its downstream signaling in Jurkat T-lymphocytes upon high glucose treatment. Candidate genes like Interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17E IL-17F and IL-6 were up-regulated in both Jurkat T-lymphocytes and PBLCs from normal and diabetes subjects. This high glucose induced cytokine expression was due to promoter activation. Pharmacology inhibitor studies showed the involvement of NF-κB, protein kinase-C, p38 Mitogen activated protein kinase; Janus activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription and extracellular regulated kinase signaling pathways. Further, high glucose treatment increased the adhesion of lymphocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results show that IL-17 cytokines are induced by high glucose via key signaling pathways leading to lymphocyte activation and relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications like atherosclerosis.

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#23953026   2013/09/05 Save this To Up

Variable interference with interferon signal transduction by different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-sense single-strand RNA virus that has contributed to substantial losses to the swine industry. The objective of this study was to examine the interference of interferon (IFN)-activated signaling by PRRSV viral proteins and compare the effects of several PRRSV strains on the IFN signaling. Three non-structural proteins (nsp 1β, 7 and 12) and two structural proteins (GP3 and N) of VR-2385 were found to significantly inhibit the expression of IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) luciferase reporter. Nsp1β and N showed robust inhibition and their-encoding sequences from the six PRRSV strains (VR-2385, Ingelvac PRRS MLV, VR-2332, NVSL97-7895, MN184, and Lelystad) were cloned for further characterization. The nsp1βs of all the strains except MLV inhibited expression of IFN-induced ISRE reporter, interferon-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2). The N proteins inhibited the IFN-induced ISRE reporter expression and STAT2 elevation and blocked nuclear translocation of STAT1. In MARC-145 cells, all the six PRRSV strains with the exception of MN184 blocked the activity of exogenous IFN-α. In primary porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), only MLV and NVSL failed to inhibit the activity of IFN-α. These results indicate that some PRRSV strains, such as NVSL and MN184, have variable effects on IFN-activated signaling in the two types of cells.

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#21194454   2011/01/17 Save this To Up

Differences in the ability to suppress interferon β production between allele A and allele B NS1 proteins from H10 influenza A viruses.

In our previous study concerning the genetic relationship among H10 avian influenza viruses with different pathogenicity in mink (Mustela vison), we found that these differences were related to amino acid variations in the NS1 protein. In this study, we extend our previous work to further investigate the effect of the NS1 from different gene pools on type I IFN promoter activity, the production of IFN-β, as well as the expression of the IFN-β mRNA in response to poly I:C.

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#20939906   2010/10/26 Save this To Up

Intracellular expression of IRF9 Stat fusion protein overcomes the defective Jak-Stat signaling and inhibits HCV RNA replication.

Interferon alpha (IFN-α) binds to a cell surface receptor that activates the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. A critical component of this pathway is the translocation of interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (a complex of three proteins Stat1, Stat2 and IRF9) to the nucleus to activate antiviral genes. A stable sub-genomic replicon cell line resistant to IFN-α was developed in which the nuclear translocation of Stat1 and Stat2 proteins was prevented due to the lack of phosphorylation; whereas the nuclear translocation of IRF9 protein was not affected. In this study, we sought to overcome defective Jak-Stat signaling and to induce an antiviral state in the IFN-α resistant replicon cell line by developing a chimera IRF9 protein fused with the trans activating domain (TAD) of either a Stat1 (IRF9-S1C) or Stat2 (IRF9-S2C) protein. We show here that intracellular expression of fusion proteins using the plasmid constructs of either IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C, in the IFN-α resistant cells, resulted in an increase in Interferon Stimulated Response Element (ISRE) luciferase promoter activity and significantly induced HLA-1 surface expression. Moreover, we show that transient transfection of IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C plasmid constructs into IFN-α resistant replicon cells containing sub-genomic HCV1b and HCV2a viruses resulted in an inhibition of viral replication and viral protein expression independent of IFN-α treatment. The results of this study indicate that the recombinant fusion proteins of IRF9-S1C, IRF9-S2C alone, or in combination, have potent antiviral properties against the HCV in an IFN-α resistant cell line with a defective Jak-Stat signaling.

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#20149251   2010/03/04 Save this To Up

Impaired antiviral activity of interferon alpha against hepatitis C virus 2a in Huh-7 cells with a defective Jak-Stat pathway.

The sustained virological response to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 is only 50%, but is about 80% in patients infected with genotype 2-6 viruses. The molecular mechanisms explaining the differences in IFN-alpha responsiveness between HCV 1 and other genotypes have not been elucidated.

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#15664995   2005/03/28 Save this To Up

Regulation of the transcriptional activity of the IRF7 promoter by a pathway independent of interferon signaling.

Genes containing an interferon (IFN)-stimulated response element (ISRE) can be divided into two groups according to their inducibility by IFN and virus infection: one induced only by IFN and the other induced by both IFN and virus infection. Although it is now clear that IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is a multifunctional gene essential for induction of type I IFNs, regulation of the IRF7 promoter (IRF7p) is poorly understood. The IRF7 gene includes two IFN responsive elements, an IRF-binding element (IRFE) in the promoter region and an ISRE in the first intron, and is induced by the IFN-triggered Jak-STAT pathway by binding of the IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex to the ISRE. In this study, we demonstrate that IRF3 and IRF7, which with the coactivators CREB-binding protein and P300 form the virus-activated factor (VAF) complex upon Sendai virus infection, bind to the IRF7 ISRE and IRFE and can directly activate IRF7 transcription. Promoter reporter assays show that both the ISRE and IRFE are responsive to activation by IRF7 and IRF3. In cells transiently expressing IRF7 or/and IRF3, the VAF level and binding of VAF are clearly increased after Sendai virus infection. Studies with Jak1 kinase inactive 293 cells that were stably transfected with a Jak1 kinase dead dominant negative construct, and the mutant cell lines SAN (IFNalpha-/beta-), U2A (IRF9-), U4A (Jak1-), and DKO (IRF1-/IRF2-) show that the IRF7 transcription activated directly by VAF is distinct from and independent of the IFN signaling pathway. Thus, IRF7 transcription is autoregulated by binding of the IRF7-containing VAF to its own ISRE and IRFE. The results show two distinct mechanisms for the activation of the IRF7 promoter, by IFN and by virus infection. A regulatory network between type I IFNs and IRF7 is proposed. The distinct pathways may reflect special roles for an efficient antiviral response at different stages of virus infection.

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#15593009   2004/12/13 Save this To Up

Hepatitis C virus core protein down-regulates transcription of interferon-induced antiviral genes.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins interfere with the interferon (IFN)-alpha-induced Jak/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. Which protein is responsible for this effect and whether this interference results in down-regulation of IFN-induced genes remain controversial. We analyzed the effect of HCV core (HCV-Co) protein on expression of IFN-induced antiviral genes.

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#15331704   2004/08/27 Save this To Up

Regulation of hepatitis C virus replication by interferon regulatory factor 1.

Cellular antiviral responses are mediated partly by the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, triggered by viral genomes, their transcripts and replicative intermediates. Persistent replication of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon suggests that the replicon does not elicit cellular innate antiviral responses. In the present study, we investigated regulatory factors of the interferon-mediated antiviral system in cells expressing an HCV replicon. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that the baseline activity of the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) was significantly lower in cells harboring the replicon than in naive cells. Among the proteins involved in the IFN/Jak/STAT pathway and in ISRE activity, the expression level of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) was found to be significantly lower in cells harboring the replicon. Transfection of an IRF-1 expression construct into cells harboring the replicon caused an increase of ISRE activity, accompanied by suppression of expression of the HCV replicon. Moreover, in cured Huh7 cells from which the HCV replicon had been eliminated, the expression levels of IRF-1 and ISRE activity also were suppressed, demonstrating that the decrease of IRF-1 is attributable, not to active suppression by the viral proteins, but to adaptation of cells that enables replication of the HCV subgenome. The high permissiveness of the cured cells for the replicon was abolished by transgenic supplementation of IRF-1 expression. Taken together, IRF-1 is one of the key host factors that regulate intracellular HCV replication through modulation of interferon-stimulated-gene-mediated antiviral responses.

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#15308723   2004/08/13 Save this To Up

Blocking of the alpha interferon-induced Jak-Stat signaling pathway by Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

The induction of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) is a powerful host defense mechanism against viral infection, and many viruses have evolved strategies to overcome the antiviral effects of IFN. In this study, we found that IFN-alpha had only some degree of antiviral activity against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, in contrast to another flavivirus, dengue virus serotype 2, which was highly sensitive to IFN-alpha in the cultured cell system. JEV infection appeared to render cells resistant to IFN-alpha since the IFN-alpha-induced luciferase reporter activity driven by the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) was gradually reduced as the JEV infection progressed. Since the biological activities of IFNs are triggered by the Janus kinase (Jak) signal transducer and activation of transcription (Stat) signaling cascade, we then studied the activation of Jak-Stat pathway in the virus-infected cells. The IFN-alpha-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat1, Stat2, and Stat3 was suppressed by JEV in a virus replication and de novo protein synthesis-dependent manner. Furthermore, JEV infection blocked the tyrosine phosphorylation of IFN receptor-associated Jak kinase, Tyk2, without affecting the expression of IFN-alpha/beta receptor on the cell surface. Consequently, expression of several IFN-stimulated genes in response to IFN-alpha stimulation was also reduced in the JEV-infected cells. Overall, our findings suggest that JEV counteracts the effect of IFN-alpha/beta by blocking Tyk2 activation, thereby resulting in inhibition of Jak-Stat signaling pathway.

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