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#28709945   2017/07/15 Save this To Up

Punicalagin, a polyphenol from pomegranate fruit, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human PC-3 and LNCaP cells.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is an international health problem and search for its effective treatment is in progress. Punicalagin (PN), polyphenol from pomegranate fruit, is known to exhibit potent anticancer activity in lung, breast and cervical cells. However, there is paucity of information on its effect in PCa. This study evaluated anti-proliferative effects of PN and its effects on extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in PCa cells, and angiogenesis in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Antioxidant activities of PN were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) methods. PCa (PC-3 and LNCaP) and normal prostate (BPH-1) cells were cultured and treated with PN (10, 50 and 100 μM). Cytotoxicity and viability effects of PN were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and XTT assays, respectively. Antiangiogenic effects were measured using CAM assay, while apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, enrichment factor by Cell Death Detection ELISA kit and expressions of caspases-3 and -8. Results showed that PN (10-200 μM) significantly scavenged DPPH and inhibited LPO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, PN (10-100 μM) concentration-dependently inhibited viability in PC-3 and LNCaP, while viability in BPH-1 was insignificantly affected. PN had low toxicity on cells in vitro at concentrations tested. Also, PN (100 μM) increased enrichment factor in PC-3 (2.34 ± 0.05) and LNCaP (2.31 ± 0.26) relative to control (1.00 ± 0.00). In addition, PN (50 μM) decreased the network of vessels in CAM, suggesting its anti-angiogenic effect. Moreso, PN increased the expressions of caspases-3 and -8 in PC-3. Overall, PN exerts anti-proliferative activity in PCa cells via induction of apoptosis and anti-angiogenic effect.

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#28588699   2017/06/07 Save this To Up

Irradiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with 7.5 Gy X-rays prior to donor lymphocyte infusion inhibits proliferation while preserving cytotoxicity, and improves the effectiveness of HSCT in patients with hematological malignancies.

The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of different X-ray doses on the proliferation and cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), particularly lymphocytes, in order to assess whether this reduces the incidence of graft vs. host disease (GVHD) while preserving the graft vs. tumor (GVT) effect in patients with hematological malignancies following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). PBMCs from healthy donors were irradiated with X-rays at doses of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 25 or 50 Gy, and their proliferative activity was determined using a WST-8 assay kit. The cytotoxic activity of non-irradiated PBMCs and PBMCs irradiated with 7.5 Gy X-rays was tested in the leukemic cell line K562 and its Adriamycin-resistant strain K562A using a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The clinical data of 7 patients who received 7.5 Gy X-ray-irradiated PBMC infusions following autologous HSCT were analyzed. PBMCs irradiated with ≥7.5 Gy X-rays exhibited a complete inhibition of proliferation. PBMCs irradiated with 7.5 Gy X-rays exhibited significantly increased cytotoxic activity towards K562 cells compared with K562A cells (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in cytotoxicity between irradiated and non-irradiated PBMCs, irrespective of the target cell, K562 or K562A (P>0.05). Based on the in vitro data, clinical data from patients who received 7.5 Gy X-ray-irradiated PBMC infusions following HSCT between January 2005 and January 2013 were assessed retrospectively. A total of 7 patients were included in the current study. The majority achieved various degrees of remission following donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and none suffered from GVHD. This indicates that 7.5 Gy-irradiated PMBCs have a potential application in DLI for the treatment of patients following HSCT. However, further studies on larger patient cohorts are required to assess the clinical potential of 7.5 Gy-irradiated PBMCs for preserving the GVT effect while avoiding GVHD following HSCT.

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#28578345   2017/06/04 Save this To Up

Calcium Channel Opening Rather than the Release of ATP Causes the Apoptosis of Osteoblasts Induced by Overloaded Mechanical Stimulation.

Stress fracture is one of the most common overuse injuries in athletes. Overloaded mechanical stimulation is an important factor affecting stress fractures, but the mechanism is unclear.

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#28543190   2017/05/25 Save this To Up

Effects of shRNA-Mediated Silencing of PKM2 Gene on Aerobic Glycolysis, Cell Migration, Cell Invasion, and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

This study aims to explore the effects of shRNA-mediated silencing on Pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2) gene during aerobic glycolysis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 136 patients diagnosed with qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to detect mRNA and protein expressions of PKM2. CRC cells were divided into a blank, vector, and PKM2-shRNA groups. Hexokinase (HK) and PKM2 activity were both determined by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) coupled colorimetric assay and enzyme coupling rate method. The extracellular lactate concentration was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometer and caspase activity was measured using spectrophotometry. The proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of CRC cells were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry, transwell assay, and scratch test. Three groups of nude mice were injected with 0.2 mL single-cell suspension from the blank, vector, and PKM2-shRNA groups, respectively. PKM2 protein content in CRC tissues was higher than that in adjacent normal tissues. Results showed that the PKM2-shRNA group exhibited significantly lower mRNA and protein expressions of PKM2, decreased PKM2 activity, reduced lactate metabolism level, increased cell apoptosis rate, elevated caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, weakened proliferation, and a reduction in cell invasion and migration ability compared to the vector and blank groups. The optical density (OD) value was lower in the PKM2-shRNA group than in the blank and vector groups. These findings indicate that shRNA-mediated silencing of PKM2 gene promotes apoptosis and inhibits aerobic glycolysis, proliferation, migration, and invasion in CRC cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-12, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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#28272477   2017/03/08 Save this To Up

Chemosensitivity of MCF-7 cells to eugenol: release of cytochrome-c and lactate dehydrogenase.

Phytochemicals have been extensively researched for their potential anticancer effects. In previous study, direct exposure of rat liver mitochondria to eugenol main ingredient of clove, uncoupled mitochondria and increased F0F1ATPase activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of eugenol on MCF-7 cells in culture. Eugenol demonstrated: a dose-dependent decrease in viability (MTT assay), and proliferation (real time cell analysis) of MCF-7 cells, (EC50: 0.9 mM); an increase in reactive oxygen species; a decrease in ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoPT JC-1 assay); and a release of cytochrome-c and lactate dehydrogenase (Cytotoxicity Detection Kit (PLUS)) into culture media at eugenol concentration >EC50. Pretreatment with the antioxidants Trolox and N-acetyl cysteine partially restored cell viability and decreased ROS, with Trolox being more potent. Expression levels of both anti- and pro-apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively) decreased with increasing eugenol concentration, with no variation in their relative ratios. Eugenol-treated MCF-7 cells overexpressing Bcl-2 exhibited results similar to those of MCF-7. Our findings indicate that eugenol toxicity is non-apoptotic Bcl-2 independent, affecting mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity with no effect on migration or invasion. We report here the chemo-sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to eugenol, a phytochemical with anticancer potential.

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#28260084   2017/03/05 Save this To Up

Toxicity study of oxalicumone A, derived from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium oxalicum, in cultured renal epithelial cells.

Oxalicumone A (POA), a novel dihydrothiophene-condensed chromone, was isolated from the marine‑derived fungus Penicillium oxalicum. Previous reports demonstrated that POA exhibits strong activity against human carcinoma cells, thus it has been suggested as a bioactive anticancer agent. To research the toxic effect of POA on cultured normal epithelial human kidney‑2 (HK‑2) cells and evaluate its clinical safety, cell survival was evaluated by the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry, caspase‑3 activity assay and western blotting. 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate and JC‑1 dye staining was used to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), respectively. The results indicated that POA inhibited HK-2 cell growth and promoted apoptosis, by increasing levels of Fas cell surface cell receptor and the B‑cell lymphoma 2 associated protein X apoptosis regulator (Bax)/B‑cell lymphoma 2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl-2) ratio. POA treatment also induced release of ROS and loss of MMP in HK‑2 cells. Compared with untreated control, a significant decrease was also demonstrated in superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content with POA treatment, accompanied by enhanced release of N‑acetyl‑β‑D‑glucosaminidase, increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, increased malondialdehyde formation and increased release of nitric oxide. In conclusion, the present in vitro study revealed that POA exhibits antiproliferation activity on HK‑2 cells, through stimulation of apoptosis and oxidative stress injury, which may be relevant to its clinical application. The present study may, therefore, offer valuable new information regarding the use of POA as a candidate novel antitumor drug for clinical use.

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#28042534   2017/01/02 Save this To Up

Effect of Food Additive Citric Acid on The Growth of Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Line EC109.

Today, esophageal cancer (EC) has become one of the most common cancer types in China. Therefore, new drug and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve postoperative survival rate of patients with EC. As a food additive, several lines of evidence have shown that citric acid can be served as glycolysis suppressor to inhibit growth of some tumor cells. However, little is known about the effect of this organic acid on the growth of human esophageal carcinoma cell line, EC109.

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#28004067   2016/12/22 Save this To Up

[Advanced glycated albumin induces macrophage apoptosis via activating caspase-12 pathway].

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of advanced glycated albumin (AGE-alb) on the activation of caspase-12, a key molecule in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated apoptotic pathway, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of macrophage apoptosis. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with AGE-alb (2, 4 and 6 g/L), control albumin (C-alb, 4 g/L), tunicamycin (TM, 4 mg/L), or pretreated with 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA, 5 mmol/L) for 1 h and then treated with AGE-alb (4 g/L). After incubation for 24 h, the cell viability and apoptosis were determined by using MTT assay and TUNEL detection kit, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in media was determined by using an assay kit. The protein levels of caspase-12 were examined by Western blot analysis. The results showed that like TM (an ERS inducer), incubation with AGE-alb led to significant decrease in viability and increase in LDH activity in media and apoptotic rate in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, AGE-alb induced activation of caspase-12 especially at the concentration of 4 and 6 g/L (P < 0.01), which was similar to TM. However, PBA (an ERS inhibitor) protected RAW264.7 macrophages from AGE-alb-induced decrease in viability and increases in LDH activity and apoptosis. Moreover, PBA also inhibited the caspase-12 activation induced by AGE-alb (P < 0.05). These results suggest that AGE-alb may induce apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the mechanism may be related to the activation of ERS-associated apoptotic pathway mediated by caspase-12.

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#27899859   2016/11/30 Save this To Up

Effect of N-Perfluorooctane on Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

This study investigated the effect of n-perfluorooctane (PFC) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

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#27815707   2016/11/05 Save this To Up

Calreticulin attenuated microwave radiation-induced human microvascular endothelial cell injury through promoting actin acetylation and polymerization.

Recent work reveals that actin acetylation modification has been linked to different normal and disease processes and the effects associated with metabolic and environmental stressors. Herein, we highlight the effects of calreticulin on actin acetylation and cell injury induced by microwave radiation in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC). HMEC injury was induced by high-power microwave of different power density (10, 30, 60, 100 mW/cm(2), for 6 min) with or without exogenous recombinant calreticulin. The cell injury was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and Cell Counting Kit-8 in culture medium, migration ability, intercellular junction, and cytoskeleton staining in HMEC. Western blotting analysis was used to detected calreticulin expression in cytosol and nucleus and acetylation of globular actin (G-actin). We found that HMEC injury was induced by microwave radiation in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment HMEC with calreticulin suppressed microwave radiation-induced LDH leakage and increased cell viability and improved microwave radiation-induced decrease in migration, intercellular junction, and cytoskeleton. Meanwhile, pretreatment HMEC with exogenous calreticulin upregulated the histone acetyltransferase activity and the acetylation level of G-actin and increased the fibrous actin (F-actin)/G-actin ratio. We conclude that exogenous calreticulin protects HMEC against microwave radiation-induced injury through promoting actin acetylation and polymerization.

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